Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2013, Article ID 517931, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/517931
Research Article

The Antitumor Effects of Triterpenoid Saponins from the Anemone flaccida and the Underlying Mechanism

Key Laboratory of Traditional Chinese Medicine Resource and Compound Prescription of the Ministry of Education, Hubei University of Chinese Medicine, Wuhan 430065, China

Received 22 June 2013; Revised 14 August 2013; Accepted 20 August 2013

Academic Editor: Shrikant Anant

Copyright © 2013 Lin-Tao Han et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. C.-R. Cheng, Q.-X. Yue, Z.-Y. Wu et al., “Cytotoxic triterpenoids from Ganoderma lucidum,” Phytochemistry, vol. 71, no. 13, pp. 1579–1585, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. H.-X. Sun, Y.-P. Ye, and Y.-J. Pan, “Cytotoxic oleanane triterpenoids from the rhizomes of Astilbe chinensis (Maxim.) Franch. et Savat,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 90, no. 2-3, pp. 261–265, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. X. Chen, J. Lu, W. He et al., “Antiperoxidation activity of triterpenoids from rhizome of Anemone raddeana,” Fitoterapia, vol. 80, no. 2, pp. 105–111, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. C. Liang, Y. Ding, H. T. Nguyen et al., “Oleanane-type triterpenoids from Panax stipuleanatus and their anticancer activities,” Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, vol. 20, no. 23, pp. 7110–7115, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. L.-T. Han, J. Li, F. Huang, S.-G. Yu, and N.-B. Fang, “Triterpenoid saponins from Anemone flaccida induce apoptosis activity in HeLa cells,” Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 122–127, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. G. Calviello, F. di Nicuolo, S. Gragnoli et al., “n-3 PUFAs reduce VEGF expression in human colon cancer cells modulating the COX-2/PGE2 induced ERK-1 and -2 and HIF-1α induction pathway,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 2303–2310, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. Greenhough, H. J. M. Smartt, A. E. Moore et al., “The COX-2/PGE2 pathway: key roles in the hallmarks of cancer and adaptation to the tumour microenvironment,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 377–386, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. C. E. Eberhart, R. J. Coffey, A. Radhika, F. M. Giardiello, S. Ferrenbach, and R. N. DuBois, “Up-regulation of cyclooxygenase 2 gene expression in human colorectal adenomas and adenocarcinomas,” Gastroenterology, vol. 107, no. 4, pp. 1183–1188, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. I. Stasinopoulos, T. Shah, M. F. Penet, B. Krishnamachary, and Z. M. Bhujwalla, “COX-2 in cancer: Gordian knot or Achilles heel?” Frontiers in Pharmacology, vol. 4, article 34, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. S. V. Diduk, K. V. Smirnova, and V. E. Gurtsevich, “COX-2 as an early diagnostic marker of virus-associated human malignant neoplasms,” Voprosy Virusologii, vol. 57, no. 4–8, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  11. P. Nagendraprabhu and G. Sudhandiran, “Astaxanthin inhibits tumor invasion by decreasing extracellular matrix production and induces apoptosis in experimental rat colon carcinogenesis by modulating the expressions of ERK-2, NFκB and COX-2,” Investigational New Drugs, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 207–224, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. D. Castellone, H. Teramoto, B. O. Williams, K. M. Druey, and J. S. Gutkind, “Prostaglandin E2 promotes colon cancer cell growth through a Gs-axin-β-catenin signaling axis,” Science, vol. 310, no. 5753, pp. 1504–1510, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. F. C. Dehle, V. R. Mukaro, C. Jurisevic et al., “Defective lung macrophage function in lung cancer±chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD/Emphysema)-mediated by cancer cell production of PGE2?” PloS ONE, vol. 8, Article ID e61573, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. J. Reader, D. Holt, and A. Fulton, “Prostaglandin E2 EP receptors as therapeutic targets in breast cancer,” Cancer and Metastasis Reviews, vol. 30, no. 3-4, pp. 449–463, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. C. Abrahao, R. M. Castilho, C. H. Squarize, A. A. Molinolo, D. D. Santos-Pinto Jr., and J. S. Gutkind, “A role for COX2-derived PGE2 and PGE2-receptor subtypes in head and neck squamous carcinoma cell proliferation,” Oral Oncology, vol. 46, no. 12, pp. 880–887, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. G. M. Cohen, “Caspases: the executioners of apoptosis,” The Biochemical Journal, vol. 326, part 1, pp. 1–16, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. L. Galluzzi, O. Kepp, and G. Kroemer, “Caspase-3 and prostaglandins signal for tumor regrowth in cancer therapy,” Oncogene, vol. 31, pp. 2805–2808, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. C. Sanmartin, D. Plano, A. K. Sharma, and J. A. Palop, “Selenium compounds, apoptosis and other types of cell death: an overview for cancer therapy,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 13, pp. 9649–9672, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  19. W. K. K. Wu, J. J. Y. Sung, C. W. Lee, J. Yu, and C. H. Cho, “Cyclooxygenase-2 in tumorigenesis of gastrointestinal cancers: an update on the molecular mechanisms,” Cancer Letters, vol. 295, no. 1, pp. 7–16, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. A. Yokosuka, T. Sano, K. Hashimoto, H. Sakagami, and Y. Mimaki, “Triterpene glycosides from the whole plant of Anemone hupehensis var. japonica and their cytotoxic activity,” Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 57, no. 12, pp. 1425–1430, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. K. Shanmugam, A. H. Nguyen, A. P. Kumar, B. K. H. Tan, and G. Sethi, “Targeted inhibition of tumor proliferation, survival, and metastasis by pentacyclic triterpenoids: potential role in prevention and therapy of cancer,” Cancer Letters, vol. 320, no. 2, pp. 158–170, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. G. Gasparini, R. Longo, R. Sarmiento, and A. Morabito, “Inhibitors of cyclo-oxygenase 2: a new class of anticancer agents?” The Lancet Oncology, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 605–615, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. Y. W. Hsum, W. T. Yew, P. L. V. Hong et al., “Cancer chemopreventive activity of maslinic acid: suppression of COX-2 expression and inhibition of NF-κB and AP-1 activation in raji cells,” Planta Medica, vol. 77, no. 2, pp. 152–157, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. D. Deeb, X. Gao, H. Jiang, S. A. Dulchavsky, and S. C. Gautam, “Oleanane triterpenoid CDDO-Me inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in prostate cancer cells by independently targeting pro-survival Akt and mTOR,” Prostate, vol. 69, no. 8, pp. 851–860, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. Z. Tian, M. Yang, F. Huang et al., “Cytotoxicity of three cycloartane triterpenoids from Cimicifuga dahurica,” Cancer Letters, vol. 226, no. 1, pp. 65–75, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus