Table 1: Examples of item rewriting during item bank development phase of the HEAL project.

DomainOriginal questionRationales for rewritingRevised item

Positive and negative attitudes I often feel lonely because I have few close friends with whom to share my concerns.Double-barreled item (several concepts within one question)I feel lonely.

Treatment expectancy/credibilityI do not think the chiropractor can help me. Negatively worded item, specific to one treatment provider/modalityI expect this treatment to help me.

Patient-provider encounterI trust my therapist.Specific to one providerI trust my healthcare provider.

Locus of control/self-efficacyIn this life what happens to me is determined by fate. WordyMy life is influenced by fate.