Figure 4: Capsaicin promoted the mRNA expression of ERS markers, GRP78 and GADD153. PANC-1 (a) and SW1990 (b) cells were treated with 200 μmol/L and 150 μmol/L capsaicin for 24 h, respectively. Real-time PCR analysis for mRNA expression of GRP78 and GADD153 was performed after capsaicin treatment. All samples were performed in triplicate, and the relative amount of the target gene was normalized with the housekeeping gene RPLP0. Data are expressed as mean ± SD and analyzed by the unpaired Student’s -test, and compared with DMSO-treated cells.