Table 1: Bioactive compounds of Raphani Semen.

ClassificationsCompounds and their chemical structuresMolecular formulaeFunctions/Pharmacological effects

AlkaloidSinapine
636194.table.001a
C16H24N Antidiarrheal and anti-inflammatory activities [19]
Radioprotective effect [20, 21] and neuroprotective effect [22]
Antioxidative function [23]
Antiaging property [24]
Potential to treat Alzheimer's disease [25, 26]

GlucosinolatesGlucoraphanin
636194.table.001b
C12H23NO10S3Precursor of sulforaphane [27, 28]
In vitro modulator of hepatic cytochrome P450 and phase II conjugation activities [29]
Glucoraphenin
636194.table.001c
C12H21NO10S3Precursor of sulforaphene [30]

IsothiocyanatesSulforaphane
636194.table.001d
C6H11NOS2Chemopreventive effect on human cancer cells (including mammary cancer cell [31, 32], prostate cells [33, 34], pancreatic cancer cells [35], colon cancer cells [36], T-cell leukemia [37], immortalized lymphoblastic cells [38], and immortalized hepatocytes [39], as well as murine hepatoma cells [40])
Protection against radiation-induced skin carcinogenesis in mice [41]
Neuroprotective and immunomodulatory effects [28]
Sulforaphene
636194.table.001e
C6H9NOS2Antibacterial [42] activities
Anti-human immortalized hepatocytes [39]

BrassinosteroidsCastasterone
636194.table.001f
C28H48O5Cytotoxic to human cancer cell lines [43]
Plant growth hormones [44]
Brassinolide
636194.table.001g
C28H48O6Plant growth hormone [44, 45]
Teasterone
636194.table.001h
C28H48O4N/A
28-Homoteasterone
636194.table.001i
C29H50O4Plant growth hormone [46]

N/A; not applicable.