Figure 1: Anti-diabetic effects of cytopiloyne in db/db mice during long-term treatment. (A) Chemical structure of cytopiloyne. (B) Four groups of 6 to 8-week-old diabetic db/db mice were tube-fed with vehicle, cytopiloyne (CP, 0.5 and 2.5 mg/kg/day), or glimepiride (GLM, 2.5 mg/kg/day) from 0 to 6 weeks. Postprandial blood glucose (BG) levels in these mice were measured. (C) Blood insulin levels from the above mice (B). (D) IPGTT was performed in the above db/db mice (B) on weeks 0 and 6 after-treatment, and blood glucose levels were monitored for 3.5 h. (E) The percentage of glycosylated HbA1c in whole blood from the above mice (B) was determined 0 and 6 weeks after-treatment. (F) Pancreata of 8- and 16-week-old db/db males, which had received the same treatment as described in (B) for 2 (images a–h) and 10 (images i–p) weeks, were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E, images (a), (c), (e), (g), (i), (k), (m), and (o)) or hematoxylin and an antibody against insulin (H&I, images (b), (d), (f), (h), (j), (l), (n), and (p)). Arrowheads indicate pancreatic islets. Scale bars, 200 μm. Results are expressed as mean ± SEM from 3 independent experiments, and (*) < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. The number of mice (n) is indicated in parentheses.