Figure 6: Schematic diagram of the likely mechanism by which cytopiloyne treats T2D in diabetic mouse models. Cytopiloyne shows anti-diabetic effects in diabetic mice, as evidenced by a reduction in the levels of blood sugar and glycosylated HbA1c, improvement of glucose tolerance, and its regulation of β-cell functions (e.g., insulin secretion, insulin expression, and pancreatic islet protection). The regulation of insulin secretion/expression in β cells by cytopiloyne involves PKCα and its activators, calcium, and DAG.