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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2013, Article ID 698206, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/698206
Research Article

Effect of Brazilian Propolis on Exacerbation of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Mice Exposed to Tetrabromobisphenol A, a Brominated Flame Retardant

1Department of Biochemistry, Graduate School of Clinical Pharmacy, Kyushu University of Health and Welfare, 1714-1 Yoshino, Miyazaki, Nobeoka 882-8508, Japan
2Department of Microbiology, Graduate School of Clinical Pharmacy, Kyushu University of Health and Welfare, 1714-1 Yoshino, Miyazaki, Nobeoka 882-8508, Japan
3Research Division, Minami Nihon Rakuno Kyodo Co. Ltd., Miyazaki, Miyakonojo 885-0003, Japan
4Clinical Pharmacy, Graduate School of Clinical Pharmacy, Kyushu University of Health and Welfare, 1714-1 Yoshino, Miyazaki, Nobeoka 882-8508, Japan
5Amazonfood Ltd., 3-1-8 Misaki, Chiyoda, Tokyo 101-0061, Japan
6School of Pharmacy, Nihon University, 7-7-1 Narashinodai, Chiba, Funabashi-shi 274-8555, Japan
7Department of Food Science, College of Food Engineering, State University of Campinas, P.O. Box 6177, 13083-970 Campinas, SP, Brazil

Received 3 June 2013; Accepted 14 September 2013

Academic Editor: F. R. F. Nascimento

Copyright © 2013 Tomomi Takeshita et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), a brominated flame retardant, has been found to exacerbate pneumonia in respiratory syncytial virus- (RSV-) infected mice. We examined the effect of Brazilian propolis (AF-08) on the exacerbation of RSV infection by TBBPA exposure in mice. Mice were fed a powdered diet mixed with 1% TBBPA alone, 0.02% AF-08 alone, or 1% TBBPA and 0.02% AF-08 for four weeks and then intranasally infected with RSV. TBBPA exposure increased the pulmonary virus titer and level of IFN-γ, a representative marker of pneumonia due to RSV infection, in the lungs of infected mice without toxicity. AF-08 was significantly effective in reducing the virus titers and IFN-γ level increased by TBBPA exposure. Also, AF-08 significantly reduced proinflammatory cytokine (TNF-α and IL-6) levels in the lungs of RSV-infected mice with TBBPA exposure, but Th2 cytokine (IL-4 and IL-10) levels were not evidently increased. Neither TBBPA exposure nor AF-08 treatment affected the anti-RSV antibody production in RSV-infected mice. In flow cytometry analysis, AF-08 seemed to be effective in reducing the ratio of pulmonary CD8a+ cells in RSV-infected mice with TBBPA exposure. TBBPA and AF-08 did not exhibit anti-RSV activity in vitro. Thus, AF-08 probably ameliorated pneumonia exacerbated by TBBPA exposure in RSV-infected mice by limiting excess cellular immune responses.