Multiple Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Action of Lycopene in Cancer Inhibition
Phases of lycopene intervention in the carcinogenic process. Cancer development is a multistep process that includes initiation, promotion, and progression. The initiation step is started by the addition of a carcinogen or irradiation in normal cells. Lycopene and its metabolites can block this step by inactivating ROS and inducing the detoxification and antioxidant enzyme systems that protect cells from the damage caused by carcinogenic initiators. Lycopene can also block or impede tumour promotion and progression by modulating key signalling pathways induced by tumour promoters, inflammatory cytokines, and growth factors.
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