Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2013 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

The Effect of Qigong on Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Table 1

Summary of randomized controlled trials of the effects of qigong on depressive and anxiety symptoms.

Studies Participants
(age)
Sample size (pre-/post-)Intervention
(frequency for qigong)
ControlDuration and Followup Subjective outcome measuresIntergroup differences

Chan et al., 2012 [28]Outpatients with clinical depression (28–62 y) QG: 25/17
CG1: 25/17
CG2: 25/16
DMBI
(90 min group practice once a week plus weekly home assignments)
CG1: CBT
CG2: Waiting-list
10 wk (1) HRSD
(2) BDI-II
(3) Quality of sleep
(1) P = 0.03 (DMBI versus waiting-list)
P = 0.01 (CBT versus waiting-list)
(2) P = 0.001 (DMBI versus waiting-list)
P = 0.009 (CBT versus waiting-list)
(3) P < 0.03 (DMBI versus Waiting-list)

Chan et al., 2011 [29] Adults with depressive mood (25–64 y) QG: 20/NR
CG: 20/NR
DMBI
(90 min group practice once a week plus weekly home assignments)
Group CBT4 wk BDI-II P < 0.05

Cheung et al., 2005 [30]Patients with hypertension
IG: 57.2 ± 9.5 y
CG: 51.2 ± 7.4 y
QG: 47/47
CG: 44/41
Goulin qigong
(2 hr group practice twice a week for 4 weeks followed by once a month for 3 months plus 75 min home practice daily)
Conventional exercise 16 wk(1) BAI
(2) BDI
(3) SF-36
(1) NS
(2) NS
(3) NS

Liu et al., 2012 [31]Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (46–83 y) QG: 44/33
Cg: 44/36
Baduanjin qigong plus health education and usual care
(40 min group practice once a week plus five times home practice per week)
Health education and usual care12 wk (1) SDS
(2) DMQLS
(1) P < 0.05
(2) P < 0.05

Ma et al., 2011 [32] Women with perimenopausal syndrome and depression (45–55 y) QG: 49/NR
CG1: 46/NR
CG2: 50/NR
Baduanjin qigong
(90 min group practice once each day)
CG1: Walking
CG2: Waiting-list
3 mo CES-D P < 0.01 (QG versus CG1)
P < 0.01 (QG versus CG2)

Qiu, 2011 [33]Outpatients with mild/moderate depression (18–60 y) QG: 31/NR
CG: 29/NR
Wuqinxi qigong plus drugs
(40 min group practice once each day)
Walking plus drugs 8 wk (1) HAMD
(2) SDS
(3) PSQI
(1) P < 0.05
(2) P < 0.05
(3) P < 0.05

Stenlund et al., 2009 [34]Patients with burnout syndrome (25–65 y) QG: 41/33
CG: 41/35
Qigong (style: NR) plus usual care
(1 hour group practice twice a week plus home practice)
Usual care only12 wk(1) HADS
(2) SMBQ
(3) SF-36
(1) NS
(2) NS
(3) NS

Tsang et al., 2012 [35]Depressed elders with chronic illness QG: 21/19
CG: 17/15
Bajuanjin qigong
(45 min group practice three sessions per week)
Newspaper reading and discussion 12 wk(1) GDS
(2) HRSD
(3) CGSS
(1) P = 0.007
(2) NS
(3) P = 0.025

Tsang et al., 2006 [36]Elderly with depression (≧65 y)QG: 56/48
CG: 41/34
Baduanjin qigong
(30–45 min group practice three times a week plus 15 min home practice daily)
Newspaper reading and discussion 16 wk (1) GDS
(2) CGSS
(3) PWI
(4) GHQ
(1) P = 0.041
(2) P < 0.001
(3) P < 0.001
(4) P = 0.042

Tsang et al., 2003 [37]Elderly with chronic illness and depressed mood (≧65 y)QG: 24/NR
CG: 26/NR
Bajuanjin qigong plus basic rehabilitation activities
(1 hour group practice twice a week plus 30 min home practice daily)
Traditional remedial rehabilitation activities 12 wk(1) GDS
(2) WHOQOL-BREF
(1) P = 0.145
(2) P < 0.05 for physical health

Wang et al., 2010 [38]“Subhealth problem” (n.r.) QG: 40/NR
CG: 40/NR
Wuqinxi qigong
(60 min group practice five times per week)
Waiting-list 3 mo (1) SDS,
(2) SAS
(1) P < 0.05
(2) P < 0.05

Wang, 2008 [39]Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and insomnia (40–70 y)QG: 30/23
CG1: 30/26
CG2: 30/29
Baduanjin qigong
(60 min group practice twice a week plus home practice daily)
CG1: mindful relaxation
CG2: waiting-list
4 mo (1) SDS
(2) SAS
(3) PSQI
(1) P = 0.036 (QG versus CG2)
(2) NS
(3) P = 0.02 (QG versus CG2)

CG: control group; QG: qigong group; NR: not reported; NS: nonsignificance.
BAI: Beck Anxiety Inventory; BDI: Beck Depression Inventory; BDI-II: Beck Depression Inventory; CBT: cognitive-behavioral therapy group; CES-D: Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; CGSS: Chinese General Self-efficacy Scale; DMBI: Dejian mind-body intervention; DMQLS: quality of life scale for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus; GDS: Geriatric Depression Scale; HADS: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; HAMD: Hamilton depression rating scale; HRSD: Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression; PSQI: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; PWI: Personal Well-Being Index; SAS: Self-Rating Anxiety Scale; SDS: Self-Rating Depression Scale; SMBQ: Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire. WHOQOL-BREF: World Health Organization Quality of Life: Abbreviated Version.

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