Research Article

Saikosaponin-d Enhances the Anticancer Potency of TNF- via Overcoming Its Undesirable Response of Activating NF-Kappa B Signalling in Cancer Cells

Figure 6

Suppressive effect of Ssd on the HUVEC’s tube formation and cell migration. (a) Cytotoxicity assay of Ssd in HUVECs. (b) Cytotoxicity assay of Ssd in CCD19Lu. (c) Ssd inhibits the formation of endothelial cells (EC) tube networks in HUVECs. The HUVECs were incubated with different concentrations of Ssd for 30 min at room temperature before seeding. DMSO or Ssd-treated HUVECs were seeded on polymerized Matrigel in the presence of VEGF; the images of EC tube networks were captured after incubation for 8 h at 37°C. (d) The numbers of the tube formed were quantified under light microscope. (e) Ssd inhibits the cell migration in HUVECs. The HUVECs were incubated onto gelatin-coated plates for 24 h. An artificial wound was created and the denuded area in each well was captured using Motic Image Plus microscope. HUVECs were then incubated with 5 or 10 μM of Ssd for further 16 or 24 h and the denuded areas were captured and analyzed using Java’s Image J software. (f) The migration of cells towards the wounds was expressed as percentage of wound closure for 16 and 24 h. Results are presented from three independent experiments.