About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 751658, 17 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/751658
Review Article

Updates on Antiobesity Effect of Garcinia Origin (−)-HCA

1School of Industrial Technology, University Science Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia
2School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, 43300 Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia
3Department of Bioprocess Technology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
4Institute of Bioscience, University Putra Malaysia, 43300 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Received 15 June 2013; Accepted 7 July 2013

Academic Editor: Vincenzo De Feo

Copyright © 2013 Li Oon Chuah et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. WHO, “Global database on body mass index,” http://apps.who.int/bmi/index.jsp, 2012.
  2. W. H. O. expert consultation, “Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies,” The Lancet, vol. 363, pp. 157–163, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  3. International Association for the Study of Obesity (IASO), “% Global prevalence of adult obesity (BMI 30 kg/m2): country rankings 2012,” http://www.iaso.org/site_media/uploads/Global_prevalence_of_adult_obesity_Ranking_by_country_2012.pdf, 2012.
  4. WHO, “Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic, report of a WHO consultation,” WHO Technical Report Series 894, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  5. G. A. Bray and F. L. Greenway, “Pharmacological treatment of the overweight patient,” Pharmacological Reviews, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 151–184, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. United States Food and Drug Administration, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, “Endocrinologic and metabolic drugs advisory committee,” http://www.fda.gov/downloads/AdvisoryCommittees/CommitteesMeetingMaterials/Drugs/EndocrinologicandMetabolicDrugsAdvisoryCommittee/UCM224180.pdf, 2012.
  7. United States Food and Drug Administration, “Meridia (sibutramine): market withdrawal due to risk of serious cardiovascular events,” http://www.fda.gov/safety/medwatch/safetyinformation/safetyalertsforhumanmedicalproducts/ucm228830.htm, 2010.
  8. D. Heber, “Herbal preparations for obesity: are they useful?” Primary Care, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 441–463, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. T. K. Lim, Edible Medicinal and Non-Medicinal Plants, vol. 2 of Fruits, Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2012.
  10. W. Sergio, “A natural food, the Malabar Tamnarind, may be effective in the treatment of obesity,” Medical Hypotheses, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 39–40, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. H. Drury, The Useful Plants of India: With Notices of Their Chief Value in Commerce, Medicine, and the Arts, William H. Allen & Co., London, UK, 2nd edition, 1873.
  12. B. S. Jena, G. K. Jayaprakasha, R. P. Singh, and K. K. Sakariah, “Chemistry and biochemistry of (−)-hydroxycitric acid from Garcinia,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 10–22, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. C. P. Khare, Indian Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated Dictionary, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2007.
  14. A. Sreenivasan and R. Venkataraman, “Chromatographic detection of the organic constituents of Gorikapuli (Garcinia cambogia Desr.) used in pickling fish,” Current Science, vol. 28, pp. 151–152, 1959. View at Google Scholar
  15. S. E. Ohia, C. A. Opere, A. M. LeDay, M. Bagchi, D. Bagchi, and S. J. Stohs, “Safety and mechanism of appetite suppression by a novel hydroxycitric acid extract (HCA-SX),” Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 238, no. 1-2, pp. 89–103, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. H. G. Preuss, D. Bagchi, M. Bagchi, C. V. S. Rao, D. K. Dey, and S. Satyanarayana, “Effects of a natural extract of (−)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA-SX) and a combination of HCA-SX plus niacin-bound chromium and Gymnema sylvestre extract on weight loss,” Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 171–180, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. Roy, C. Rink, S. Khanna et al., “Body weight and abdominal fat gene expression profile in response to a novel hydroxycitric acid-based dietary supplement,” Gene Expression, vol. 11, no. 5-6, pp. 251–262, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. B. Deore, V. D. Sapakal, N. L. Dashputre, and N. S. Naikwade, “Antiulcer activity of Garcinia indica linn fruit rinds,” Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, vol. 1, pp. 151–154, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  19. P. Mahendran, A. J. Vanisree, and C. S. Shyamala Devi, “The antiulcer activity of Garcinia cambogia extract against indomethacin induced gastric ulcer in rats,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 80–83, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. F. Yamaguchi, M. Saito, T. Ariga, Y. Yoshimura, and H. Nakazawa, “Free radical scavenging activity and antiulcer activity of garcinol from Garcinia indica fruit rind,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 2320–2325, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. Asghar, E. Monjok, G. Kouamou, S. E. Ohia, D. Bagchi, and M. F. Lokhandwala, “Super CitriMax (HCA-SX) attenuates increases in oxidative stress, inflammation, insulin resistance, and body weight in developing obese Zucker rats,” Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 304, no. 1-2, pp. 93–99, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. M. Mackeen, A. M. Ali, N. H. Lajis et al., “Antimicrobial, antioxidant, antitumour-promoting and cytotoxic activities of different plant part extracts of Garcinia atroviridis Griff. ex T. Anders,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 72, no. 3, pp. 395–402, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. F. Yamaguchi, T. Ariga, Y. Yoshimura, and H. Nakazawa, “Antioxidative and anti-glycation activity of garcinol from Garcinia indica fruit rind,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 180–185, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. Y. Yonei, Y. Takahashi, S. Hibino, M. Watanabe, and T. Yoshioka, “Effects on the human body of a dietary supplement containing L-carnitine and Garcinia cambogia extract: a study using double-blind tests,” Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 89–103, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. P. Y. Wielinga, R. E. Wachters-Hagedoorn, B. Bouter et al., “Hydroxycitric acid delays intestinal glucose absorption in rats,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 288, no. 6, pp. G1144–G1149, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. P. S. Negi and G. K. Jayaprakasha, “Control of foodborne pathogenic and spoilage bacteria by garcinol and Garcinia indica extracts, and their antioxidant activity,” Journal of Food Science, vol. 69, no. 3, pp. FMS61–FMS65, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. D. Permana, N. H. Lajis, M. M. Mackeen et al., “Isolation and bioactivities of constitutents of the roots of Garcinia atroviridis,” Journal of Natural Products, vol. 64, no. 7, pp. 976–979, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. K. N. Varalakshmi, C. G. Sangeetha, A. N. Shabeena, S. R. Sunitha, and J. Vapika, “Antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Garcinia indica fruit rind extract,” American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences, vol. 7, pp. 652–656, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  29. M. M. Mackeen, A. M. Ali, N. H. Lajis, K. Kawazu, H. Kikuzaki, and N. Nakatani, “Antifungal garcinia acid esters from the fruits of Garcinia atroviridis,” Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung C, vol. 57, no. 3-4, pp. 291–295, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. B. D. Reis, C. C. De Oliveira, S. C. Acedo et al., “Attenuation of colitis injury in rats using Garcinia cambogia extract,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 324–329, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. Syahida, D. A. Israf, D. Permana et al., “Atrovirinone inhibits pro-inflammatory mediator release from murine macrophages and human whole blood,” Immunology and Cell Biology, vol. 84, no. 3, pp. 250–258, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. E. A. Mazzio and K. F. A. Soliman, “In vitro screening for the tumoricidal properties of international medicinal herbs,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 385–398, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. A. Parasramka and S. V. Gupta, “Garcinol inhibits cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis in pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells,” Nutrition and Cancer, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 456–465, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. S. Prasad, J. Ravindran, B. Sung, M. K. Pandey, and B. B. Aggarwal, “Garcinol potentiates TRAIL-induced apoptosis through modulation of death receptors and antiapoptotic proteins,” Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 856–868, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. K. Ishihara, S. Oyaizu, K. Onuki, K. Lim, and T. Fushiki, “Chronic (−)-hydroxycitrate administration spares carbohydrate utilization and promotes lipid oxidation during exercise in mice,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 130, no. 12, pp. 2990–2995, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. G. Kaur and S. K. Kulkarni, “Investigations on possible serotonergic involvement in effects of OB-200G (polyherbal preparation) on food intake in female mice,” European Journal of Nutrition, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 127–133, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. Y. J. Kim, K. Kim, M. S. Kim, J. H. Lee, K. P. Lee, and T. Park, “A mixture of the aqueous extract of Garcinia cambogia, soy peptide and L-carnitine reduces the accumulation of visceral fat mass in rats rendered obese by a high fat diet,” Genes and Nutrition, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 353–358, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. K. Kim, H. N. Lee, Y. J. Kim, and T. Park, “Garcinia cambogia extract ameliorates visceral adiposity in C57BL/6J mice fed on a high-fat diet,” Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry, vol. 72, no. 7, pp. 1772–1780, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. M. Leonhardt and W. Langhans, “Hydroxycitrate has long-term effects on feeding behavior, body weight regain and metabolism after body weight loss in male rats,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 132, no. 7, pp. 1977–1982, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. S. B. Heymsfield, D. B. Allison, J. R. Vasselli, A. Pietrobelli, D. Greenfield, and C. Nunez, “Garcinia cambogia (hydroxycitric acid) as a potential antiobesity agent: a randomized controlled trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 280, no. 18, pp. 1596–1600, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. E. M. R. Kovacs, M. S. Westerterp-Plantenga, and W. H. M. Saris, “The effects of 2-week ingestion of (−)-hydroxycitrate and (−)-hydroxycitrate combined with medium-chain triglycerides on satiety, fat oxidation, energy expenditure and body weight,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 1087–1094, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. A. D. Kriketos, H. R. Thompson, H. Greene, and J. O. Hill, “(−)-Hydroxycitric acid does not affect energy expenditure and substrate oxidation in adult males in a post-absorptive state,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 867–873, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. L. O. Chuah, S. K. Yeap, W. Y. Ho, B. K. Beh, and N. Banu Alitheen, “In vitro and in vivo toxicity of Garcinia or hydroxycitric acid: a review,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2012, Article ID e197920, 12 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  44. P. C. Sharma, M. B. Yelne, and T. J. Dennis, Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda, vol. 2, Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha, New Delhi, India, 2005.
  45. Y. S. Lewis and S. Neelakantan, “(−)-Hydroxycitric acid-the principal acid in the fruits of Garcinia cambogia desr,” Phytochemistry, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 619–625, 1965. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. G. K. Jayaprakasha and K. K. Sakariah, “Determination of organic acids in Garcinia cambogia (Desr.) by high- performance liquid chromatography,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 806, no. 2, pp. 337–339, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. G. K. Jayaprakasha and K. K. Sakariah, “Determination of organic acids in leaves and rinds of Garcinia indica (Desr.) by LC,” Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 379–384, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. L. Muensritharam, V. Tolieng, C. Chaichantipyuth, A. Petsom, and T. Nhujak, “Capillary zone electrophoresis for separation and analysis of hydroxycitric acid and hydroxycitric acid lactone: application to herbal products of Garcinia atroviridis Griff,” Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 577–582, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. D. Permana, F. Abas, M. Maulidiani et al., “Atrovirisidone B, a new prenylated depsidone with cytotoxic property from the roots of Garcinia atroviridis,” Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung C, vol. 60, no. 7-8, pp. 523–526, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. D. Permana, N. H. Lajis, K. Shaari et al., “A new prenylated hydroquinone from the roots of Garcinia atroviridis Griff ex T. Anders (Guttiferae),” Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung B, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 332–335, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. M. Iinuma, T. Ito, R. Miyake, H. Tosa, T. Tanaka, and V. Chelladurai, “A xanthone from Garcinia cambogia,” Phytochemistry, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 1169–1170, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. P. J. Cotterill, F. Scheinmann, and G. S. Puranik, “Phenolic compounds from the heartwood of Garcinia indica,” Phytochemistry, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 148–149, 1977. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. J. Kosin, N. Ruangrungsi, C. Ito, and H. Furukawa, “A xanthone from Garcinia atroviridis,” Phytochemistry, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 1167–1168, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. M. Masullo, C. Bassarello, H. Suzuki, C. Pizza, and S. Piacente, “Polyisoprenylated benzophenones and an unusual polyisoprenylated tetracyclic xanthone from the fruits of Garcinia cambogia,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 56, no. 13, pp. 5205–5210, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. S. Kumar, S. Sharma, and S. K. Chattopadhyay, “High-performance liquid chromatography and LC-ESI-MS method for identification and quantification of two isomeric polyisoprenylated benzophenones isoxanthochymol and camboginol in different extracts of Garcinia species,” Biomedical Chromatography, vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 888–907, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. S. K. Chattopadhyay and S. Kumar, “A rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for quantification of a biologically active molecule camboginol in the extract of Garcinia cambogia,” Biomedical Chromatography, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 55–66, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. A. V. Rama Rao, G. Venkatswamy, and A. D. Pendse, “Camboginol and cambogin,” Tetrahedron Letters, vol. 21, no. 20, pp. 1975–1978, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. N. Krishnamurthy, Y. S. Lewis, and B. Ravindranath, “On the structures of garcinol, isogarcinol and camboginol,” Tetrahedron Letters, vol. 22, no. 8, pp. 793–796, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. K. Hayamizu, Y. Ishii, I. Kaneko, M. Shen, Y. Okuhara, H. Sakaguchi, et al., “No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level (NOAEL) and sequential-high- dose administration study on Garcinia cambogia extract in humans,” Journal of Oleo Science, vol. 51, pp. 365–369, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  60. E. M. R. Kovacs and M. S. Westerterp-Plantenga, “Effects of (−)-hydroxycitrate on net fat synthesis as de novo lipogenesis,” Physiology and Behavior, vol. 88, no. 4-5, pp. 371–381, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. M. S. Westerterp-Plantenga and E. M. R. Kovacs, “The effect of (−)-hydroxycitrate on energy intake and satiety in overweight humans,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 870–872, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. M. Girola, M. De. Bernardi, and S. Contos, “Dose effect in lipid lowering activity of a new dietary integrator (Chitosan, Garcinia cambogia extract, and Chrome),” Acta Toxicologica Et Therapeutica, vol. 17, pp. 25–40, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  63. K. Hayamizu, Y. Ishii, I. Kaneko et al., “Effects of Garcinia cambogia (Hydroxycitric Acid) on visceral fat accumulation: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial,” Current Therapeutic Research, vol. 64, no. 8, pp. 551–567, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. H. G. Preuss, R. I. Garis, J. D. Bramble et al., “Efficacy of a novel calcium/potassium salt of (−)-hydroxycitric acid in weight control,” International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Research, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 133–144, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. R. Roman Ramos, J. Flores Saenz, and M. C. F. Alarcon Aguilar en, “Control of obesity with Garcinia cambogia extract,” Investigacion Medica Internacional, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 97–100, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. C. Roongpisuthipong, R. Kantawan, and W. Roongpisuthipong, “Reduction of adipose tissue and body weight: Effect of water soluble calcium hydroxycitrate in Garcinia atroviridis on the short term treatment of obese women in Thailand,” Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 25–29, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. E. Toromanyan, G. Aslanyan, E. Amroyan, E. Gabrielyan, and A. Panossian, “Efficacy of Slim339 in reducing body weight of overweight and obese human subjects,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 1177–1181, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. E. Thom, “A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a new weight-reducing agent of natural origin,” Journal of International Medical Research, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 229–233, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. R. D. Mattes and L. Bormann, “Effects of (−)-hydroxycitric acid on appetitive variables,” Physiology and Behavior, vol. 71, no. 1-2, pp. 87–94, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. L. J. C. Van Loon, J. J. M. Van Rooijen, B. Niesen, H. Verhagen, W. H. M. Saris, and A. J. M. Wagenmakers, “Effects of acute (−)-hydroxycitrate supplementation on substrate metabolism at rest and during exercise in humans,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 72, no. 6, pp. 1445–1450, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. E. M. R. Kovacs, M. S. Westerterp-Plantenga, M. De Vries, F. Brouns, and W. H. M. Saris, “Effects of 2-week ingestion of (−)-hydroxycitrate and (−)-hydroxycitrate combined with medium-chain triglycerides on satiety and food intake,” Physiology and Behavior, vol. 74, no. 4-5, pp. 543–549, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. A. A. Conte, “A non-prescription alternative in weight reduction therapy,” American Journal of Bariatric Medicine, pp. 17–19, summer1993. View at Google Scholar
  73. J. Kim, S. Jeon, K. Park et al., “Does Glycine max leaves or Garcinia cambogia promote weight-loss or lower plasma cholesterol in overweight individuals: a randomized control trial,” Nutrition Journal, vol. 10, no. 1, article 94, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. T. Opala, P. Rzymski, I. Pischel, M. Wilczak, and J. Woźniak, “Efficacy of 12 weeks supplementation of a botanical extract-based weight loss formula on body weight, body composition and blood chemistry in healthy, overweight subjects—a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial,” European Journal of Medical Research, vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 343–350, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. C. A. R. Vasques, S. Rossetto, G. Halmenschlager et al., “Evaluation of the pharmacotherapeutic efficacy of Garcinia cambogia plus amorphophallus konjac for the treatment of obesity,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 1135–1140, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. K. Hayamizu, H. Tomi, I. Kaneko, M. Shen, M. G. Soni, and G. Yoshino, “Effects of Garcinia cambogia extract on serum sex hormones in overweight subjects,” Fitoterapia, vol. 79, no. 4, pp. 255–261, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. The Wealth of India: Raw Materials IV, CSIR, New Delhi, India, 1956.
  78. A. C. Sullivan, J. Triscari, and H. E. Spiegel, “Metabolic regulation as a control for lipid disorders. I. Influence of, (−)-hydroxycitrate on experimentally induced obesity in the rodent,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 30, pp. 767–776, 1977. View at Google Scholar
  79. A. C. Sullivan, J. Triscari, and H. E. Spiegel, “Metabolic regulation as a control for lipid disorders. II. Influence of (−)-hydroxycitrate on genetically and experimentally induced hypertriglyceridemia in the rat,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 777–784, 1977. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. W. C. Stallings, J. F. Blount, P. A. Srere, and J. P. Glusker, “Structural studies of hydroxycitrates and their relevance to certain enzymatic mechanisms,” Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 193, no. 2, pp. 431–448, 1979. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. J. Kjeldstadli and E. Thom, “Synthetically prepared composition for treatment and/or prophylaxis of overweight, and use thereof,” US patent, EP, 1007027 A2, 2000.
  82. S. Haleema, P. V. Sasi, I. Ibnusaud, P. L. Polavarapu, and H. B. Kagan, “Enantiomerically pure compounds related to chiral hydroxy acids derived from renewable resources,” RSC Advances, vol. 2, pp. 9257–9285, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  83. J. Louter-Van De Haar, P. Y. Wielinga, A. J. W. Scheurink, and A. G. Nieuwenhuizen, “Comparison of the effects of three different (−)-hydroxycitric acid preparations on food intake in rats,” Nutrition and Metabolism, vol. 2, article 23, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. B. W. Downs, M. Bagchi, G. V. Subbaraju, M. A. Shara, H. G. Preuss, and D. Bagchi, “Bioefficacy of a novel calcium-potassium salt of (−)-hydroxycitric acid,” Mutation Research, vol. 579, no. 1-2, pp. 149–162, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. A. C. Sullivan, J. G. Hamilton, O. N. Miller, and V. R. Wheatley, “Inhibition of lipogenesis in rat liver by (−)-hydroxycitrate,” Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 150, no. 1, pp. 183–190, 1972. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. D. Bagchi, G. Trimurtulu, A. V. K. Raju, K. Sengupta, P. B. S. Murthy, and T. V. N. Rao, “Comparative bioavailability of (−)-hydroxycitric acid from oral administration of HCA calcium salt and calcium-potassium double salt in Albino Wistar rats,” Journal of the Federation of American Societies For Experimental Biology, vol. 24, p. 505, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  87. M. Asghar, R. Zeyssig, E. Monjok et al., “Hydroxycitric acid (HCA-SX) decreases oxidative stress and insulin resistance and increases brain serotonin levels in obese Zucker rats,” Experimental Biology Meeting, vol. 20, Article ID A655.4, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  88. S. Roy, H. Shah, C. Rink et al., “Transcriptome of primary adipocytes from obese women in response to a novel hydroxycitric acid-based dietary supplement,” DNA and Cell Biology, vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 627–639, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. R. Uauy and E. Díaz, “Consequences of food energy excess and positive energy balance,” Public Health Nutrition, vol. 8, no. 7 A, pp. 1077–1099, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. M. Shara, S. E. Ohia, T. Yasmin et al., “Dose- and time-dependent effects of a novel (−)-hydroxycitric acid extract on body weight, hepatic and testicular lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation and histopathological data over a period of 90 days,” Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 254, no. 1-2, pp. 339–346, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. M. Shara, S. E. Ohia, R. E. Schmidt et al., “Physico-chemical properties of a novel (−)-hydroxycitric acid extract and its effect on body weight, selected organ weights, hepatic lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation, hematology and clinical chemistry, and histopathological changes over a period of 90 days,” Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 260, no. 1, pp. 171–186, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. K. A. Amin, H. H. Kamel, and M. A. Abd Eltawab, “Protective effect of Garcinia against renal oxidative stress and biomarkers induced by high fat and sucrose diet,” Lipids in Health and Disease, vol. 10, article 6, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. J. A. Watson, M. Fang, and J. M. Lowenstein, “Tricarballylate and hydroxycitrate: substrate and inhibitor of ATP: citrate oxaloacetate lyase,” Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 135, no. C, pp. 209–217, 1969. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. T. A. Berkhout, L. M. Havekes, N. J. Pearce, and P. H. E. Groot, “The effect of (−)-hydroxycitrate on the activity of the low-density-lipoprotein receptor and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase levels in the human hepatoma cell line Hep G2,” Biochemical Journal, vol. 272, no. 1, pp. 181–186, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. H. Chee, D. R. Romsos, and G. A. Leveille, “Influence of (−) hydroxycitrate on lipogenesis in chickens and rats,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 107, no. 1, pp. 112–119, 1977. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. A. C. Sullivan, J. Triscari, J. G. Hamilton, and O. N. Miller, “Effect of (−)-hydroxycitrate upon the accumulation of lipid in the rat: II. Appetite,” Lipids, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 129–134, 1974. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. A. C. Sullivan, J. Triscari, and J. G. Hamilton, “Effect of (−)-hydroxycitrate upon the accumulation of lipid in the rat: I. Lipogenesis,” Lipids, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 121–128, 1974. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. G. D. Lopaschuk, J. R. Ussher, and J. S. Jaswal, “Targeting intermediary metabolism in the hypothalamus as a mechanism to regulate appetite,” Pharmacological Reviews, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 237–264, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. N. B. Rederman, A. K. Saha, D. Vavvas, and L. A. Witters, “Malonyl-CoA, fuel sensing, and insulin resistance,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 276, pp. E1–E18, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  100. S. E. Ohia, S. O. Awe, A. M. LeDay, C. A. Opere, and D. Bagchi, “Effect of hydroxycitric acid on serotonin release from isolated rat brain cortex,” Research Communications in Molecular Pathology and Pharmacology, vol. 109, no. 3-4, pp. 210–216, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. J. McGuirk, R. Muscat, and P. Willner, “Effects of chronically administerd fluoxetine and fenfluramine on food intake, body weight and the behavioural satiety sequence,” Psychopharmacology, vol. 106, no. 3, pp. 401–407, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. M. Leonhardt, B. Hrupka, and W. Langhans, “Effect of hydroxycitrate on food intake and body weight regain after a period of restrictive feeding in male rats,” Physiology and Behavior, vol. 74, no. 1-2, pp. 191–196, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. M. R. Greenwood, M. P. Cleary, R. Gruen et al., “Effect of (−)-hydroxycitrate on development of obesity in the Zucker obese rat,” The American journal of physiology, vol. 240, no. 1, pp. E72–E78, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. A. C. Sullivan and J. Triscari, “Metabolic regulation as a control for lipid disorders. I. Influence of (−)-hydroxycitrate on experimentally induced obesity in the rodent,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 767–776, 1977. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. J. Triscari and A. C. Sullivan, “Comparative effects of (−)-hydroxycitrate and (+)-allo hydroxycitrate on acetyl CoA carboxylase and fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis in vivo,” Lipids, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 357–363, 1977. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. M. Leonhardt, B. Balkan, and W. Langhans, “Effect of hydroxycitrate on respiratory quotient, energy expenditure, and glucose tolerance in male rats after a period of restrictive feeding,” Nutrition, vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 911–915, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. S. Cheema Dhadli, M. L. Halperin, and C. C. Leznoff, “Inhibition of enzymes which interact with citrate by (−)-hydroxycitrate and 1,2,3 tricarboxybenzene,” European Journal of Biochemistry, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 98–102, 1973. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. J. M. Lowenstein, “Effect of (−)-hydroxycitrate on fatty acid synthesis by rat liver in vivo,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 246, no. 3, pp. 629–632, 1971. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. K. Lim, S. Ryu, H. Nho et al., “(−)-Hydroxycitric acid ingestion increases fat utilization during exercise in untrained women,” Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 163–167, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. K. Lim, S. Ryu, Y. Ohishi et al., “Short-term (−)-hydroxycitrate ingestion increases fat oxidation during exercise in athletes,” Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 128–133, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. J. R. Vasselli, E. Shane, C. N. Boozer, and S. B. Heymsfield, “Garcinia cambogia extract inhibits body weight gain via increased Energy Expenditure (EE) in rats,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 12, no. 4, p. A505, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. V. Leray, H. Dumon, L. Martin et al., “No effect of conjugated linoleic acid or Garcinia cambogia on fat-free mass, and energy expenditure in normal cats,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 136, no. 7, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. G. Blunden, “Garcinia extract inhibits lipid droplet accumulation without affecting adipose conversion in 3T3-L1 cells,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 172–173, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. E. D. Rosen, C. J. Walkey, P. Puigserver, and B. M. Spiegelman, “Transcriptional regulation of adipogenesis,” Genes and Development, vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 1293–1307, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. E. D. Rosen, C. Hsu, X. Wang et al., “C/EBPα induces adipogenesis through PPARγ: a unified pathway,” Genes and Development, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 22–26, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. J. B. Kim, H. M. Wright, M. Wright, and B. M. Spiegelman, “ADD1/SREBP1 activates PPARγ through the production of endogenous ligand,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 95, no. 8, pp. 4333–4337, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. S. Dagogo-Jack, “Human leptin regulation and promise in pharmacotherapy,” Current Drug Targets, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 181–195, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. H. Staiger, O. Tschritter, J. Machann et al., “Relationship of serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations with body fat distribution in humans,” Obesity Research, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 368–372, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. S. T. Nadler, J. P. Stoehr, K. L. Schueler, G. Tanimoto, B. S. Yandell, and A. D. Attie, “The expression of adipogenic genes is decreased in obesity and diabetes mellitus,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 97, no. 21, pp. 11371–11376, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. G. S. Hotamisligil, N. S. Shargill, and B. M. Spiegelman, “Adipose expression of tumor necrosis factor-α: direct role in obesity-linked insulin resistance,” Science, vol. 259, no. 5091, pp. 87–91, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  121. J. M. Stephens and P. H. Pekala, “Transcriptional repression of the C/EBP-α and GLUT4 genes in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by tumor necrosis factor-α. Regulation is coordinate and independent of protein synthesis,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 267, no. 19, pp. 13580–13584, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  122. H. Xing, J. P. Northrop, J. Russell Grove, K. E. Kilpatrick, S. U. Jui-Lan, and G. M. Ringold, “TNFα-mediated inhibition and reversal of adipocyte differentiation is accompanied by suppressed expression of PPARγ without effects on Pref-1 expression,” Endocrinology, vol. 138, no. 7, pp. 2776–2783, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. K. Hayamizu, H. Hirakawa, D. Oikawa et al., “Effect of Garcinia cambogia extract on serum leptin and insulin in mice,” Fitoterapia, vol. 74, no. 3, pp. 267–273, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  124. K. Laubner, T. J. Kieffer, N. T. Lam, X. Niu, F. Jakob, and J. Seufert, “Inhibition of preproinsulin gene expression by leptin induction of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 in pancreatic β-cells,” Diabetes, vol. 54, no. 12, pp. 3410–3417, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  125. R. H. Lustig, “Childhood obesity: behavioral aberration or biochemical drive? Reinterpreting the first law of thermodynamics,” Nature Clinical Practice Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 2, no. 8, pp. 447–458, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  126. M. H. Pittler and E. Ernst, “Dietary supplements for body-weight reduction: a systematic review,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 79, no. 4, pp. 529–536, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  127. V. Badmaev, M. Majeed, A. A. Conte et al., “Garcinia cambogia for weight loss [letter],” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 282, no. 3, pp. 233–235, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  128. V. Badmaev, M. Majeed, A. A. Conte et al., “Garcinia cambogia for weight loss [letter],” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 282, no. 3, pp. 233–235, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  129. V. Badmaev, M. Majeed, A. A. Conte et al., “Garcinia cambogia for weight loss [letter],” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 282, no. 3, pp. 233–235, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  130. J. L. Schaller, “Garcinia cambogia for weight loss [letter],” The journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 282, no. 3, pp. 234–235, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  131. I. Onakpoya, S. K. Hung, R. Perry, B. Wider, and E. Ernst, “The use of Garcinia extract (Hydroxycitric Acid) as a weight loss supplement: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials,” Journal of Obesity, vol. 2011, Article ID 509038, 9 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  132. N. S. Deshmukh, M. Bagchi, T. Yasmin, and D. Bagchi, “Safety of a novel calcium/potassium salt of hydroxycitric acid (HCA-SX): I. Two-generation reproduction toxicity study,” Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 433–442, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus