Comparison of outcome measures between groups (mean ± SD).
| ||TC Qigong CA group ()||CA-control group ()||Healthy-control group ()||Effect size|
|Shoulder active ROM (affected side/dominant side)|
|Hand behind back (cm)||0.042||0.464|
|Body-weight-adjusted isokinetic peak torque at 180°/s (affected side/dominant side)|
|Shoulder internal rotators (Nm)||0.198|
|Shoulder external rotators (Nm)||0.210|
|Physical wellbeing ||N/A||0.033||0.406|
|Breast CA-specific concerns||N/A||0.193||0.036*|
| Denotes a significant difference at .|
Denotes a significant difference at .
Denotes a significant difference at when compared with the CA-control group.