Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2013 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

Shoulder Mobility, Muscular Strength, and Quality of Life in Breast Cancer Survivors with and without Tai Chi Qigong Training

Table 2

Comparison of outcome measures between groups (mean ± SD).

TC Qigong CA group ( )CA-control group ( )Healthy-control group ( )Effect size

Shoulder active ROM (affected side/dominant side)

Flexion (degree) 0.0280.598
Abduction (degree) 0.0020.964
Hand behind back (cm) 0.0420.464

Body-weight-adjusted isokinetic peak torque at 180°/s (affected side/dominant side)

Shoulder internal rotators (Nm) 0.198
Shoulder external rotators (Nm) 0.210


Physical wellbeing N/A0.0330.406
Social/family wellbeing N/A0.1530.065
Emotional wellbeing N/A0.0890.167
Functional wellbeing N/A0.2640.012*
Breast CA-specific concerns N/A0.1930.036*
Total score N/A0.5870.179

 Denotes a significant difference at .
 Denotes a significant difference at .
 Denotes a significant difference at when compared with the CA-control group.