Figure 1: Anti-inflammatory and antiobesity effects of pomegranate constituents. Punicalin and punicalagin are able to increase the bacterial production of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) by inducing the growth and metabolism of commensal bacteria. SCFAs are then absorbed and activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), which blocks the transcription of pro-inflammatory molecules by NF-κB, AP-1 and STAT, thus resulting in anti-inflammatory effects. PPARγ can also be activated by fatty acids including linoleic acid, punicic acid, catalpic acid, and stearic acid in both epithelial cells and macrophages. Such fatty acids are also able to activate PPARα resulting in lipid-lowering and antiobesity effects.