Figure 6: Effect of glucosylceramide on pro-inflammation-related signals in hippocampus of mice. Adult mice were treated with 1 mg/kg LPS (i.p.) to induce inflammation and glucosylceramide (GC 25, 50 mg/kg, p.o.) was pretreated 1 hr before LPS injection. The expression of mRNA of iNOS, COX-2, IL-1β, and TNF-α was measured at 18 h after LPS injection by immunoblot analysis. β-actin was used as an internal control. All values are expressed as mean ± S.E.M. from two independent experiments ( ). * indicates significant difference between the LPS group and glucosylceramide-treated group in aged mice.