Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 841580, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/841580
Research Article

Acute and Chronic Toxicity of an Aqueous Fraction of the Stem Bark of Stryphnodendron adstringens (Barbatimão) in Rodents

1Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Avenida Colombo 5790, 87020-900 Maringá, PR, Brazil
2Departamento de Farmácia, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Avenida Colombo 5790, 87020-900 Maringá, PR, Brazil
3Departamento de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Avenida Colombo 5790, 87020-900 Maringá, PR, Brazil
4Departamento de Farmacologia e Terapêutica, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Avenida Colombo 5790, 87020-900 Maringá, PR, Brazil
5Laboratório de Inovação Tecnológica no Desenvolvimento de Fármacos e Cosméticos, Avenida Colombo 5790, Bloco B08, 87020-900 Maringá, PR, Brazil

Received 4 April 2013; Revised 25 June 2013; Accepted 25 June 2013

Academic Editor: Ulysses Paulino Albuquerque

Copyright © 2013 Marco Antonio Costa et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. C. Udem, O. Obidoa, and I. U. Asuzu, “Acute and chronic toxicity studies of Erythrina senegalensis DC stem bark extract in mice,” Comparative Clinical Pathology, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 275–282, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. G. K. Singh and V. Kumar, “Acute and sub-chronic toxicity study of standardized extract of Fumaria indica in rodents,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 134, no. 3, pp. 992–995, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. B. Calixto, “Efficacy, safety, quality control, marketing and regulatory guidelines for herbal medicines (phytotherapeutic agents),” Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 179–189, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. U. P. de Albuquerque, J. M. Monteiro, M. A. Ramos, and E. L. C. de Amorim, “Medicinal and magic plants from a public market in northeastern Brazil,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 110, no. 1, pp. 76–91, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. C. C. Sanches, G. C. Lopes, C. E. M. Toledo, L. V. S. Sacramento, C. M. Sakuragui, and J. C. P. Mello, “Estudo Morfológico Comparativo das Cascas e Folhas de Stryphnodendron adstringens, S. polyphyllum e S. obovatum- Leguminosae,” Latin American Journal of Pharmacy, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 362–368, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  6. G. C. Lopes, A. C. C. Sanches, C. V. Nakamura, B. P. Dias Filho, L. Hernandes, and J. C. P. De Mello, “Influence of extracts of Stryphnodendron polyphyllum Mart. and Stryphnodendron obovatum Benth. on the cicatrisation of cutaneous wounds in rats,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 99, no. 2, pp. 265–272, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. D. F. Agra, K. N. Silva, I. J. L. D. Basílio, P. F. De Freitas, and J. M. Barbosa-Filho, “Survey of medicinal plants used in the region Northeast of Brazil,” Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 472–508, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. G. Brandão, N. N. Zanetti, P. Oliveira, C. F. Grael, A. C. Santos, and R. L. M. Monte-Mór, “Brazilian medicinal plants described by 19th century European naturalists and in the Official Pharmacopoeia,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 120, no. 2, pp. 141–148, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. Z. V. Pereira, R. M. Mussury, A. B. de Almeida, and A. Sangalli, “Medicinal plants used by Ponta Porã community, Mato Grosso do Sul State,” Acta Scientiarum—Biological Sciences, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 293–299, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. E. A. Audi, D. P. Toledo, P. G. Peres et al., “Gastric antiulcerogenic effects of Stryphnodendron adstringens in rats,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 3, pp. 264–266, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  11. E. A. Audi, C. E. Mendes De Toledo, F. Solera Dos Santos et al., “Biological activity and quality control of extract and stem bark from Stryphnodendron adstringens,” Acta Farmaceutica Bonaerense, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 328–333, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. D. Herzog-Soares, R. K. Alves, E. Isac et al., “Atividade tripanocida in vivo de Stryphnodendron adstringens (barbatimão verdadeiro) e Caryocar brasiliensis (pequi),” Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, vol. 12, pp. 1–2, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  13. P. S. Luize, T. S. Tiuman, L. G. Morello et al., “Effects of medicinal plant extracts on growth of Leishmania (L.) amazonensis and Trypanosoma cruzi,” Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 85–94, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. F. B. Holetz, T. Ueda-Nakamura, B. P. Dias Filho et al., “Biological effects of extracts obtained from Stryphnodendron adstringens on Herpetomonas samuelpessoai,” Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, vol. 100, no. 4, pp. 397–401, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. M. M. Felipe, V. P. Rincão, F. J. Benati et al., “Antiviral effect of Guazuma ulmifolia and Stryphnodendron adstringens on poliovirus and bovine herpesvirus,” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 1092–1095, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. K. Ishida, J. C. Palazzo de Mello, D. A. Garcia Cortez, B. P. Dias Filho, T. Ueda-Nakamura, and C. V. Nakamura, “Influence of tannins from Stryphnodendron adstringens on growth and virulence factors of Candida albicans,” Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol. 58, no. 5, pp. 942–949, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. K. Ishida, S. Rozental, J. C. P. de Mello, and C. V. Nakamura, “Activity of tannins from Stryphnodendron adstringens on Cryptococcus neoformans: effects on growth, capsule size and pigmentation,” Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials, vol. 8, p. 29, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. T. M. De Souza, J. A. Severi, V. Y. A. Silva, E. Santos, and R. C. L. R. Pietro, “Bioprospection of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities in the bark of Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville (Leguminosae-Mimosoidae),” Revista de Ciencias Farmaceuticas Basica e Aplicada, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 221–226, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. Palazzo De Mello, F. Petereit, and A. Nahrstedt, “Flavan-3-ols and prodelphinidins from Stryphnodendron adstringens,” Phytochemistry, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 807–813, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. Palazzo De Mello, F. Petereit, and A. Nahrstedt, “Prorobinetinidins from Stryphnodendron adstringens,” Phytochemistry, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 857–862, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. C. Palazzo De Mello, F. Petereit, and A. Nahrstedt, “A dimeric proanthocyanidin from Stryphnodendron adstringens,” Phytochemistry, vol. 51, no. 8, pp. 1105–1107, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. G. C. Lopes, F. A. Vieira Machado, C. E. Mendes de Toledo, C. M. Sakuragui, and J. C. Palazzo de Mello, “Chemotaxonomic significance of 5-deoxyproanthocyanidins in Stryphnodendron species,” Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, vol. 36, no. 12, pp. 925–931, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. A. Rebecca, E. L. Ishii-Iwamoto, R. Grespan et al., “Toxicological studies on Stryphnodendron adstringens,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 83, no. 1-2, pp. 101–104, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. A. Rebecca, E. L. Ishii-Iwamoto, A. M. Kelmer-Bracht et al., “Effect of Stryphnodendron adstringens (barbatimão) on energy metabolism in the rat liver,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 143, no. 1, pp. 55–63, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. E. Bürger, N. Ahlert, B. Baldisserotto, A. Langeloh, B. Schirmer, and R. Foletto, “Analysis of the abortive and/or infertilizing activity of Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville,” Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science, vol. 36, pp. 296–299, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  26. P. Cintra, O. Malaspina, and O. C. Bueno, “Toxicity of barbatimão to Apis mellifera and Scaptotrigona postica, under laboratory conditions,” Journal of Apicultural Research, vol. 42, no. 1-2, pp. 9–12, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. N. C. De Sousa, S. De Carvalho, M. A. Spanó, and U. Graf, “Absence of genotoxicity of a phytotherapeutic extract from Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville in somatic and germ cells of Drosophila melanogaster,” Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 293–299, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. A. Costa, K. Ishida, V. Kaplum et al., “Safety evaluation of proanthocyanidin polymer-rich fraction obtained from stem bark of Stryphnodendron adstringens (Barbatimão) for use as a pharmacological agent,” Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 330–335, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. Brasil. Ministério da Saúde. Anvisa—Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária, “Resolução RDC nº 48. Dispõe sobre o registro de medicamentos fitoterápicos,” 2004.
  30. Brasil. Ministério da Saúde. Anvisa—Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária, “Resolução-RE nº 90. Guia para a realização de estudos de Toxicidade Pré-Clínica de Fitoterápicos,” 2004.
  31. T. M. Antonelli-Ushirobira, E. N. Kaneshima, M. Gabriel, E. A. Audi, L. C. Marques, and J. C. P. Mello, “Acute and subchronic toxicological evaluation of the semipurified extract of seeds of guaraná (Paullinia cupana) in rodents,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 48, no. 7, pp. 1817–1820, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. C.-Y. Li, R. K. Devappa, J.-X. Liu, J.-M. Lv, H. P. S. Makkar, and K. Becker, “Toxicity of Jatropha curcas phorbol esters in mice,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 620–625, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. L. C. Miller and M. L. Tainter, “Estimation of the ED50 and its error by means of logarithmic probit graph paper,” Proceedings of the society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, vol. 57, pp. 261–264, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  34. Plantas que Curam, 2013, http://www.plantasquecuram.com.br/ervas/ barbatimao.html.
  35. J. R. Royce, “On the construct validity of open-field measures,” Psychological Bulletin, vol. 84, no. 6, pp. 1098–1106, 1977. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. F. C. Odds, A. J. P. Brown, and N. A. R. Gow, “Antifungal agents: mechanisms of action,” Trends in Microbiology, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 272–279, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. P. L. Fidel Jr., “History and update on host defense against vaginal candidiasis,” American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 2–12, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. L. Ostrosky-Zeichner, “Combination antifungal therapy: a critical review of the evidence,” Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 65–70, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. T. A. Loomis and A. W. Hayes, Loomis Essentials of Toxicology, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 1996.
  40. M. Raza, O. A. Al-Shabanah, T. M. El-Hadiyah, and A. A. Al-Majed, “Effect of prolonged vigabatrin treatment on hematological and biochemical parameters in plasma, liver and kidney of Swiss albino mice,” Scientia Pharmaceutica, vol. 70, no. 2, pp. 135–145, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. R. W. Lewis, R. Billington, E. Debryune, A. Gamer, B. Lang, and F. Carpanini, “Recognition of adverse and nonadverse effects in toxicity studies,” Toxicologic Pathology, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 66–74, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. B. M. Mitruka and H. M. Rawnsley, “Clinical biochemical and hematological reference values,” in Normal Experimental Animals, Masson Publishing, New York, NY, USA, 1977. View at Google Scholar
  43. S. T. Wolford, R. A. Schroer, F. X. Gohs et al., “Reference range data base for serum chemistry and hematology values in laboratory animals,” Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 161–188, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. G. Chandramohan, K. S. Al-Numair, and K. V. Pugalendi, “Effect of 3-hydroxymethyl xylitol on hepatic and renal functional markers and protein levels in streptozotocindiabetic rats,” African Journal of Biochemistry Research, vol. 3, pp. 198–204, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  45. C. M. Corns, “Herbal remedies and clinical biochemistry,” Annals of Clinical Biochemistry, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 489–507, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. J. El Hilaly, Z. H. Israili, and B. Lyoussi, “Acute and chronic toxicological studies of Ajuga iva in experimental animals,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 91, no. 1, pp. 43–50, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. S. O. Aniagu, F. C. Nwinyi, B. Olanubi et al., “Is Berlina grandiflora (Leguminosae) toxic in rats?” Phytomedicine, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 352–360, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. M.-F. Yuen, Y. Tanaka, D. Y.-T. Fong et al., “Independent risk factors and predictive score for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis B,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 80–88, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. H. A. Harper, Review of Physiological Chemistry, Lange Medical Publications, Los Altos, Calif, USA, 14th edition, 1973.