Brazilein from Caesalpinia sappan L. Antioxidant Inhibits Adipocyte Differentiation and Induces Apoptosis through Caspase-3 Activity and Anthelmintic Activities against Hymenolepis nana and Anisakis simplex
Effect of brazilein on cell viability in skin cancer cells. (a) Cell viability of brazilein (5, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 μM) to skin cancer cells (A431, BCC, SCC25, and A375) for 72 h and assessed by MTT assay. Each value is presented as of three individual experiments; indicates a significant difference from vehicle-treated cells. (b) Morphological changes induced by brazilein in BCC cells. BCC cells were treated with brazilein (5, 10 and 20 μM) and without (control) for 72 h. Apoptotic cells (arrows) were characterized by cellular shrinkage and rounded cell bodies (phase-contrast-inverted microscopic, 200x). (c) Nuclear morphological changes caused by brazilein in BCC cells. BCC cells were treated with (+) or without (−) brazilein (5 μM) for 72 h, and then the nuclear was stained with Hoechst 33342. Under a fluorescent microscope, apoptotic cells (arrows) were characterized by marked nuclear condensation, shrinking, and fragmentation (200x). (d) Activation of caspase-3 induced by brazilein. BCC cells were treated with (+) or without (−) brazilein (10 μM) for 72 h, and the caspase-3 andβ-actin expressions were determined by western blot.