Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 871648, 12 pages
Research Article

Effects of Korean Red Ginseng and HAART on vif Gene in 10 Long-Term Slow Progressors over 20 Years: High Frequency of Deletions and G-to-A Hypermutation

1Department of Microbiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 88 Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul 138-736, Republic of Korea
2Department of Pathology, Seoul National University Boramae Hospital, Seoul 156-707, Republic of Korea

Received 12 June 2013; Accepted 3 September 2013

Academic Editor: K. B. Harikumar

Copyright © 2013 Young Keol Cho et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


To investigate if Korean red ginseng (KRG) affects vif gene, we determined vif gene over 20 years in 10 long-term slowly progressing patients (LTSP) who were treated with KRG alone and then KRG plus HAART. We also compared these data with those of 21 control patients who did not receive KRG. Control patient group harbored only one premature stop codon (PSC) (0.9%), whereas the 10 LTSP revealed 78 defective genes (18.1%) ( ). The frequency of small in-frame deletions was found to be significantly higher in patients who received KRG alone (10.5%) than 0% in the pre-KRG or control patients ( ). Regarding HAART, vif genes containing PSCs were more frequently detected in patients receiving KRG plus HAART than patients receiving KRG alone or control patients ( ). In conclusion, our current data suggest that the high frequency of deletions and PSC in the vif gene is associated with KRG intake and HAART, respectively.