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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2013, Article ID 907041, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/907041
Research Article

Bioactive Fraction of Geopropolis from Melipona scutellaris Decreases Neutrophils Migration in the Inflammatory Process: Involvement of Nitric Oxide Pathway

1Department of Physiological Sciences, School of Dentistry of Piracicaba, University of Campinas, 901 Limeira Ave., 13414 903 Piracicaba, SP, Brazil
2Laboratory of Immunology and Molecular Biology, São Leopoldo Mandic Institute and Research Center, 13 José Rocha Junqueira Ave., 13045-755 Campinas, SP, Brazil
3Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, 3900 Bandeirantes Ave., 14049-900 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil
4Department of Agri-Food industry, Food and Nutrition, “Luiz de Queiroz” College of Agriculture, University of São Paulo, 11 Pádua Dias Ave., 13418-900 Piracicaba, SP, Brazil
5School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of Alfenas, 700 Gabriel Monteiro da Silva St., 37130-000 Alfenas, MG, Brazil

Received 6 February 2013; Accepted 31 March 2013

Academic Editor: Wojciech Krol

Copyright © 2013 Marcelo Franchin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of the ethanolic extract of geopropolis (EEGP) from Melipona scutellaris and its fractions on the modulation of neutrophil migration in the inflammatory process, and the participation of nitric oxide (NO) pathway, as well as to check the chemical profile of the bioactive fraction. EEGP and its aqueous fraction decreased neutrophil migration in the peritoneal cavity and also the interaction of leukocytes (rolling and adhesion) with endothelial cells. The levels of chemokines CXCL1/KC and CXCL2/MIP-2 were not altered after treatment with EEGP and the aqueous fraction. It was found that the injection of NO pathway antagonists abolished the EEGP and the aqueous fraction inhibitory activity on the neutrophil migration. The expression of intercellular adhesion molecule type 1 (ICAM-1) was reduced, and nitrite levels increased after treatment with EEGP and aqueous fraction. In the carrageenan-induced paw edema model, EEGP and the aqueous fraction showed antiedema activity. No pattern of flavonoid and phenolic acid commonly found in propolis samples of Apis mellifera could be detected in the aqueous fraction samples. These data indicate that the aqueous fraction found has promising bioactive substances with anti-inflammatory activity.