Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2013 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Ginkgo biloba in Neuropsychiatric Disorders: From Ancient Tradition to Modern-Day Medicine

Table 1

General characteristics of the included studies.

AuthorsYearGb doseType of studyComparatorConcomitant medicationsOutcome measureFindings

Attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Salehi et al. [35]2010 80 mg/day if weight <30 kg; otherwise 120 mg/day Randomized,
6 week
Methylphenidate 20 mg/day if weight <30 kg; otherwise 30 mg/day NoneParent and Teacher ADHD Rating Scale-IV Significant improvement with methylphenidate

Autism

Hasanzadeh et al. [34]201280 mg/day if weight <30 kg; otherwise 120 mg/day Randomized placebo controlled, 10 weeks PlaceboRisperidone 2-3 mg/day according to weightABC-CNo difference

Cocaine addiction

Kampman et al. [36]2003 240 mg/day Randomized placebo controlled, 10 weeks Piracetam 4.8 g/day or placeboNoneUrine toxicology screen or self-report relapseNo significant difference of both piracetam or Gb to placebo

Dementia

Herrschaft et al. [42]2012240 mg/day Randomized placebo controlled, 24 weeksPlaceboAntihypertensive, antithrombotic drugSKT, NPI, AD CGI, ADL, QOL Significant improvement with active treatment
Ihl et al. [43]2011240 mg/day Randomized placebo controlled, 24 weeksPlaceboAntihypertensive, antithrombotic drugSKT, NPI, AD CGI, ADL, QOLSignificant improvement with active treatment
Napryeyenko and Borzenko [44]2007240 mg/day Randomized placebo controlled, 22 weeksPlaceboAntihypertensive, antithrombotic drug SKT, NPI, ADLSignificant improvement
Schneider et al. [45]2005120 or 240 mg/day Randomized placebo controlled, 26 weeks PlaceboADAS-cog Improvement
van Dongen et al. [46]2003160 or 240 mg/day Randomized placebo controlled, 24 weeksPlaceboSKT, CGI, NAI-NAANo differences between Gb and placebo
Le Bars et al. [47]1997120 mg/day Randomized placebo controlled, 52 weeksPlaceboADAS-Cog, GERRI, CGICSignificant improvement in ADAS-cog and GERRI
Maurer et al. [48]1997240 mg/day Randomized placebo controlled, 12 weeksPlaceboSKT, ADAS-cog, CGISignificant improvement in SKT
Kanowski et al. [49]1996240 mg/day Randomized placebo controlled, 24 weeksPlaceboSKT, CGI, NBASignificant improvement
Yancheva et al. [50]2009240 mg/day Randomized versus donepezil or Gb and donepezil, 22 weeksDonepezil 10 mg/dayAntihypertensive, antithrombotic drugSKT, NPI, ADLNo significant differences between treatments
Mazza et al. [51]2006160 mg/day Randomized placebo controlled, double blind,
24 weeks
Donepezil 10 mg/dayBenzodiazepines or antipsychotics at low dosageMMSE, SKT, CGISignificant improvement compared to placebo, no differences with donepezil

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)

Woelk et al. [37]2007Two groups: low dose 240 mg/day; high dose 480 mg/day Randomized placebo controlled, 4 weeksPlaceboNoneHAMA scaleSignificant improvement compared to placebo, dose-response relationship

Schizophrenia

Doruk et al. [39]2008120 mg/day Randomized placebo controlled, 12 weeksPlaceboClozapine 350–500 mg/daySANS, SAPS, BPRSSignificant improvement in negative symptoms with Gb
Zhang et al. [40]2001360 mg/day Randomized placebo controlled, 12 weeksPlaceboHaloperidol 0.25 mg/kg/daySANS, SAPS, BPRSSignificant improvement in positive symptoms and negative symptoms with Gb
Atmaca et al. [41]2005300 mg/day Randomized olanzapine and EGb versus olanzapine alone,
8 weeks
PlaceboOlanzapine 5–20 mg/daySANS, SAPSSignificant improvement in positive symptoms with Gb

Tardive dyskinesia

Zhang et al. [38]2011240 mg/day Randomized placebo controlled, 12 weeksPlaceboAntipsychotic or cholinergic agentsAIMS and SANS and SAPSSignificant change in AIMS score. No effect of Gb on psychopathological symptoms

ADHD: attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; GAD: generalized anxiety disorder; ABC-C: Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community; HAMA scale: Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety; AIMS: Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale; SANS: Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms; SAPS: Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms; BPRS: Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale; SKT: Syndrom-Kurz test; NPI: Neuropsychiatric Inventory; AD CGI: Clinical Global Impressions Severity of AD; ADL: activities of daily living; QOL: quality of life; ADAS-cog: Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale; NAI-NAA: Nürnberger Alters Inventar-Nürnberger Alters-Alltagsaktivitäten-Skala; NAB: Nürnberger Alters-Beobachtungsskala; GERRI: Geriatric Evaluation by Relatives Rating Instrument; MMSE: Mini-Mental State Examination.

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