Figure 6: (a) Several concentrations of metformin (0, 0.5, 1, and 5 mM) were treated under hypoxia for 2 hr to determine the expression of AMPK , pAMPK , and -actin. (b) SW 620 cells were treated with CB-PIC (40  g/mL) and/or metformin (5 mM) for 2 hr under hypoxia to investigate of effect of AMPK activator with CB-PIC (40  g/mL). Western blotting was performed to determine HIF-1 , AMPK , pAMPK , pERK, ERK, pmTOR, pAKT, AKT, pACC, and -actin expressions.