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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2014, Article ID 176049, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/176049
Research Article

Dual Effect of Chrysanthemum indicum Extract to Stimulate Osteoblast Differentiation and Inhibit Osteoclast Formation and Resorption In Vitro

1Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, 344-2 Sinyong-dong, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749, Republic of Korea
2BK21plus Program & Department of Smart Life-Care Convergence, Graduate School, Wonkwang University, Iksan,Jeonbuk 570-749, Republic of Korea
3Imaging Science-Based Lung and Bone Diseases Research Center, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749, Republic of Korea
4Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749, Republic of Korea
5Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, 344-2 Sinyong-dong, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749, Republic of Korea
6Institute for Skeletal Disease, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749, Republic of Korea

Received 16 May 2014; Revised 18 July 2014; Accepted 11 August 2014; Published 28 October 2014

Academic Editor: Karl Wah-Keung Tsim

Copyright © 2014 Jong Min Baek et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The risk of bone-related diseases increases due to the imbalance between bone resorption and bone formation by osteoclasts and osteoblasts, respectively. The goal in the development of antiosteoporotic treatments is an agent that will improve bone through simultaneous osteoblast stimulation and osteoclast inhibition without undesirable side effects. To achieve this goal, numerous studies have been performed to identify novel approaches using natural oriental herbs to treat bone metabolic diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Chrysanthemum indicum extract (CIE) on the differentiation of osteoclastic and osteoblastic cells. CIE inhibited the formation of TRAP-positive mature osteoclasts and of filamentous-actin rings and disrupted the bone-resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts in a dose-dependent manner. CIE strongly inhibited Akt, GSK3β, and IκB phosphorylation in RANKL-stimulated bone marrow macrophages and did not show any effects on MAP kinases, including p38, ERK, and JNK. Interestingly, CIE also enhanced primary osteoblast differentiation via upregulation of the expression of alkaline phosphatase and the level of extracellular calcium concentrations during the early and terminal stages of differentiation, respectively. Our results revealed that CIE could have a potential therapeutic role in bone-related disorders through its dual effects on osteoclast and osteoblast differentiation.