Table 1: Baseline characteristics of subjects.

VariableYoga group
(n = 14)
Control group
(n = 11)

Age (y) 41.9 ± 8.945.0 ± 5.2
Body mass index (kg/m2) 21.3 ± 2.021.5 ± 2.2
Smoking
 No13 (92.9)11 (100)
 Yes1 (7.1)0 (0)
Medicine
 No13 (92.9)10 (90.9)
 Yes1 (7.1)1 (9.1)
Pain duration
 Less than 3 yrs4 (28.6)5 (45.5)
 3–5 yrs3 (21.4)1 (9.1)
 More than 5 yrs7 (50.0)5 (45.5)
Previous treatment for back pain
 No6 (42.9)6 (54.5)
 Yes (multiple response) 8 (57.1)5 (45.5)
 (i) Acupuncture 62
 (ii) Physical therapy33
 (iii) Exercise therapy10

Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation or n (%).