Table 2: Changes in primary and secondary outcomes.

Variable Group Baseline Week 122-way ANOVA with repeated measures

(P value)

(P value)

(P value)

Primary
 Visual analogue scale (mm)Yoga 48.7 ± 18.216.8 ± 13.2***8.5 26.3 23.1
Control 48.7 ± 12.456.5 ± 9.9*(0.008)##(<0.001)###(<0.001)###
 BDNF (pg/mL)Yoga 23973.6 ± 6996.631395.9 ± 7962.7**0.1 0.0 14.8
Control30949.8 ± 11616.624422.4 ± 8206.3(0.807)(1.00)(0.001)##
 Serotonin (ng/mL)Yoga 153.8 ± 55.5143.7 ± 61.7 11.0 0.2 5.0
Control186.4 ± 86.9134.2 ± 57.3**(0.003)##(0.645)(0.035)#
Secondary
 Back flexibility (cm)Yoga 4.7 ± 9.510.9 ± 8.4***15.3 0.02 7.5
Control7.7 ± 5.78.8 ± 5.2(0.001)##(0.892)(0.012)#
 Beck Depression Inventory (points)Yoga 5.5 ± 5.14.2 ± 5.42.0 2.3 6.5
Control 5.4 ± 3.39.8 ± 6.8(0.172)(0.146)(0.018)#

Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation. BDNF: brain-derived neurotrophic factor.
P < 0.05, P < 0.01, and P < 0.001: paired t-test within group.
#P < 0.05, ##P < 0.01, and ###P < 0.001: 2-way ANOVA with repeated measures.