Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2014 / Article / Tab 4

Research Article

Antibiotic Use in Children with Acute Respiratory or Ear Infections: Prospective Observational Comparison of Anthroposophic and Conventional Treatment under Routine Primary Care Conditions

Table 4

Disease status at baseline, consultation length.

ItemAnthroposophy group ( = 443)Conventional group ( = 86)-value

Chief complaint
 Sore throat9822.1%1416.3%
 Ear pain13029.3%3743.0%
Duration of chief complaint
 0–≤24 h16036.1%1820.9%
 >24 h–≤48 h12127.3%2225.6%0.002
 >2 days–≤7 days16136.3%4653.5%
Severe or very severe intensity of chief complaint
(i) all patients28464.3%4451.2%0.028
(ii) chief complaint ear pain93/13071.5%18/3748.6%0.017
Fever ≥ 38.5°C 8519.2%1315.1%0.449
Symptom score (0–4, mean ± SD)1.3 ± 0.71.0 ± 0.60.011
Diagnosis of chief complaint0.002
 Otitis media11425.7%2933.7%0.144
 Pharyngitis/tonsillitis 10323.3%1214.0%0.063
 Common cold/upper respiratory tract infection357.9%1618.6%0.004
Physician’s confidence in diagnosis (0–10, mean ± SD)9.4 ± 1.09.1 ± 1.20.136
 (i) based on clinical examination43397.7%7991.9% 0.023
 (ii) based on symptoms alone102.3%78.1%
Chief complaint episode within last 12 months27161.2%4248.8%0.053
Concomitant disease present13931.4%2326.7%0.444
 Disease of respiratory system409.0%1719.8%0.007
Medication use for concomitant disease6715.1%1214.0%0.870
Caregiver’s confidence in physician’s professional skill = 361 = 77
 Quite a bit8222.7%3241.6% <0.001
 Slightly or not at all20.6%10.3%
Does caregiver have confidence that the treatment will solve the medical problem? (yes/no)-yes357/35899.7%74/7598.7%0.317
Did caregiver have freedom to choose this physician? (yes/no)-yes352/36297.2%53/5891.4%0.0424
Consultation length
 <5 min61.4%1517.4%
 >5–≤15 min22651.0%6879.1% <0.001
 >15–≤30 min20847.0%33.5%
 >30–≤60 min30.7%00.0%

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