Effects of the Czech Propolis on Sperm Mitochondrial Function
Substrate-uncoupler-inhibitor titration protocol in human spermatozoa. Substrate-uncoupler-inhibitor titration (SUIT) protocol with substrates for complex I, complex II, and electron-transferring flavoprotein (ETF) in human spermatozoa. Red line = oxygen flux expressed per IU citrate synthase activity in the control sample, green line = oxygen flux expressed per IU citrate synthase activity in the sample treated with propolis 0.01 mg/mL, and blue line = oxygen concentration in the oxygraph chamber. Dig = digitonin, M = malate, G = glutamate, D = ADP, P = pyruvate, Pcar = palmitoylcarnitine, c = cytochrome c, S = succinate, Omy = oligomycin, F = FCCP, Rot = rotenone, and AmA = antimycin A.