Effects of the Czech Propolis on Sperm Mitochondrial Function
Oxygen consumption rates in the state S3 (OXPHOS) measured under control conditions and with propolis. Oxygen consumption rates in the state S3 (OXPHOS) measured under control conditions (control) and with propolis extract added (propolis) in the presence of ADP and substrates providing electrons to complex I, ETF, and complex II. M = malate, G = glutamate, P = pyruvate, Pcar = palmitoylcarnitine, and S = succinate. Oxygen fluxes were corrected for residual oxygen consumption and expressed per IU citrate synthase activity. , compared to the respective control value.