Table 8: Reported effects of P. bleo extracts on the growth of selected bacteria and fungi.

OrganismAntibacterial and antifungal effect of the extractsPositive controlReferences
MethanolWaterHexaneDichloroethaneEthyl acetateChloroform

Bacillus subtilis aNANAStreptomycin*[8]
NANAGentamicin, ampicillin[41]
Escherichia coli bNANANANAStreptomycin[42]
Escherichia coli aNANAGentamicin, ampicillin[41]
Helicobacter pylori bNANANANAStreptomycin[42]
Klebsiella pneumoniae bNANANANAStreptomycin[42]
Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus aNA+++NAStreptomycin*[8]
Mycobacterium smegmatis bNANANANAStreptomycin[42]
Pseudomonas aeruginosa a++NA+++++NAStreptomycin[8]
+NA+NAGentamicin, ampicillin[41]
Pseudomonas aeruginosa bNANANANAStreptomycin[42]
Salmonella choleraesuis a++NA+++NAStreptomycin*[8]
Staphylococcus aureus bNANANANAStreptomycin[42]
Staphylococcus aureus aNANAGentamicin, ampicillin[41]
Candida albicans cNANANAPropiconazole, miconazole[43]
Candida albicans bNANANANAAmphotericin B[42]
Cladosporium cucumerinum c++NANANA+Propiconazole, miconazole[43]

The screening for antibacterial effect was carried out by determining the zone of inhibition using paper disc, + stands for activity between 6–9 mm, ++ stands for activity between 9–14 mm, +++ stands for activity more than 14 mm [38].
b(+) stands for activity at 100  g/mL for E.  coli, S.  aureus, K.  pneumoniae, M.  smegmatis, C.  albicance, P.  aeruginosa and at 12.5  g/mL for H. pylori, (−) stands for inactive samples.
cagar overlay assay and (+) stands for active extracts at 50  g/mL, (−) stands for inactive extract.
NA: not applicable as there is no report in the literature.
*Streptomycin showed 20 to 23 mm inhibition zone. The rest of the studies did not report the exact value of the inhibition for their positive controls.