Table 2: Summary of mechanisms of action of propolis and its commonly studied phenolic contents.

Propolis/phenolic compoundCell typeMechanisms of actionReferences

PropolisU937
HL-60
K562
Induction of apoptosis, inhibition of growth and proliferation, and cell cycle arrest
Direct cytotoxicity and induction of differentiation and apoptosis
Induction of apoptosis
[119, 121]
[120]
[125]

Quercetin*HL-60
K562
U937
Cell cycle arrest and inhibition of growth and proliferation
Induction of apoptosis and differentiation
Induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest
[75]
[75]
[75]

Kaempferol*HL-60Cell cycle arrest and growth inhibition[75]
Galangin*HL-60Inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis[75]
Myricetin*HL-60Induction of apoptosis[75]

Apigenin*HL-60
THP
U937
Induction of apoptosis
Induction of apoptosis
Induction of apoptosis
[75]
[75]
[75]

Acacetin*Jurkat cellsGrowth inhibition and induction of apoptosis[75]
Chrysin*U937Induction of apoptosis[75]
Luteolin*HL-60Growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis[75]
Baccharin and drupaninHL-60Growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis[132]

GenisteinK562
HL-60
MOLT-4
RS4; 11
Inhibition of growth and induction of apoptosis
Cell cycle arrest
Cell cycle arrest
Induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest
[91]
[91, 134]
[134]

Artepillin CT-cell, B-cellInduction of apoptosis[138]

Previously reviewed by our team [75].