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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2014, Article ID 408503, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/408503
Research Article

Auraptene in the Peels of Citrus kawachiensis (Kawachi Bankan) Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation in the Mouse Brain

1Department of Pharmaceutical Pharmacology, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Matsuyama University, 4-2 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8578, Japan
2Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Matsuyama University, 4-2 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8578, Japan
3Department of Planning and Development, Ehime Beverage Inc., 478 Anjyoji, Matsuyama, Ehime 791-8603, Japan

Received 27 December 2013; Revised 25 January 2014; Accepted 27 January 2014; Published 15 May 2014

Academic Editor: Ke Ren

Copyright © 2014 Satoshi Okuyama et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Examination of the dried peel powder of Citrus kawachiensis, one of the citrus products of Ehime, Japan, showed that it contained naringin (NGIN; 44.02 ± 0.491 mg/g), narirutin (NRTN; 4.46 ± 0.0563 mg/g), auraptene (AUR; 4.07 ± 0.033 mg/g), and 3,5,6,7,8,3′,4′-heptamethoxyflavone (HMF; 0.27 ± 0.0039 mg/g). When this dried peel powder was orally preadministered at the dose of 1.2 or 2.4 g/kg/day for 7 days into lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) injected mice, an animal model of systemic inflammation, it suppressed (1) LPS-induced loss of body weight and abnormal behavior in the open field, (2) LPS-induced activation of microglia and astrocytes in the hippocampus, and (3) LPS-induced expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, which were coexpressed in astrocytes of these mice. When NGIN or AUR was preadministered to LPS-injected mice at an amount similar to that in the peel powder, AUR, but not NGIN, had the ability to suppress the LPS-induced inflammation in the brain of these model mice. The dried powder of flavedo tissue (the outer colored layer of the mesocarp of a citrus fruit) and juice, which contained sufficient amounts of AUR, also had anti-inflammatory effect. These results suggest that AUR was the main ingredient responsible for the anti-inflammatory property of the dried peels of C. kawachiensis.