Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2014, Article ID 626127, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/626127
Review Article

Low Level Laser Therapy for the Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcers: A Critical Survey

HanseMerkur Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistraße 52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany

Received 14 October 2013; Revised 10 January 2014; Accepted 19 January 2014; Published 16 March 2014

Academic Editor: Jaung-Geng Lin

Copyright © 2014 Kathrin H. Beckmann et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. International Diabetes Federation, Diabetes Atlas, International Diabetes Federation, Brussels, Belgium, 4th edition, 2009.
  2. P. Home, J. Mant, J. Diaz, and C. Turner, “Management of type 2 diabetes: summary of updated NICE guidance,” BMJ, vol. 336, no. 7656, pp. 1306–1308, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. United States National Diabetes Advisory Board, The National Long-Range Plan to Combat Diabetes, NIH Publication Number 88-1587, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md, USA.
  4. M. Kerr, Foot Care for People with Diabetes: The Economic Case for Change, NHS Diabetes, 2012.
  5. B. A. Lipsky, A. R. Berendt, P. B. Cornia et al., “2012 infectious diseases society of America clinical practice guideline fort he diagnosis and treatment of diabetic foot infections,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 54, no. 12, pp. e132–e173, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. D. G. Armstrong, L. A. Lavery, and L. B. Harkless, “Validation of a diabetic wound classification system: the contribution of depth, infection, and ischemia to risk of amputation,” Diabetes Care, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 855–859, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. Rüttermann, A. Maier-Hasselmann, B. N. Grebe, and M. Burckhardt, “Klinische Leitlinie Lokaltherapie chronischer Wunden. Bei Patienten mit peripherer arterieller Verschlusskrankheit, chronisch-venöser Insuffizienz und Diabetes mellitus,” Deutsches Ärzteblatt, vol. 110, no. 3, pp. 25–31, 2013 (German). View at Google Scholar
  8. T. Karu, “Photobiology of low-power laser effects,” Health Physics, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 691–704, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. T. Ebrahimi, N. Moslemi, A. R. Rokn, M. Heidari, H. Nokhbatolfoghahaie, and R. Fekrazad, “The influence of low-intensity laser therapy on bone healing,” Journal of Dentistry, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 238–248, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  10. G. Litscher, L. Wang, D. Schikora et al., “Biological effects of painless laser needle acupuncture,” Medical Acupuncture, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 24–29, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  11. G. Litscher, “Integrative laser medicine and high-tech acupuncture at the Medical University of Graz, Austria, Europe,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2012, Article ID 103109, 21 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. J. T. Hopkins, T. A. McLoda, J. G. Seegmiller, and G. D. Baxter, “Low-level laser therapy facilitates superficial wound healing in humans: a triple-blind, sham-controlled study,” Journal of Athletic Training, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 223–229, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. Schindl, M. Schindl, H. Schön, R. Knobler, L. Havelec, and L. Schindl, “Low-intensity laser irradiation improves skin circulation in patients with diabetic microangiopathy,” Diabetes Care, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 580–584, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. Schindl, K. Kerschan, A. Schindl, H. Schön, H. Heinzl, and L. Schindl, “Induction of complete wound healing in recalcitrant ulcers by low-intensity laser irradiation depends on ulcer cause and size,” Photodermatology Photoimmunology and Photomedicine, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 18–21, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. E. Saltmarche, “Low level laser therapy for healing acute and chronic wounds—the extendicare experience,” International Wound Journal, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 351–360, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J.-D. Zhou, C.-Q. Luo, H.-Q. Xie et al., “Increased expression of heart shock protein 70 and heat shock factor 1 in chronic dermal ulcer tissues treated with laser-aided therapy,” Chinese Medical Journal, vol. 121, no. 14, pp. 1269–1273, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. D. G. Minatel, M. A. C. Frade, S. C. França, and C. S. Enwemeka, “Phototherapy promotes healing of chronic diabetic leg ulcers that failed to respond to other therapies,” Lasers in Surgery and Medicine, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 433–441, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. Kaviani, G. E. Djavid, L. Ataie-Fashtami et al., “A randomized clinical trial on the effect of low-level laser therapy on chronic diabetic foot wound healing: a preliminary report,” Photomedicine and Laser Surgery, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 109–114, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. B. M. Kajagar, A. S. Godhi, A. Pandit, and S. Khatri, “Efficacy of low level laser therapy on wound healing in patients with chronic diabetic foot ulcers—a randomised control trial,” Indian Journal of Surgery, vol. 74, no. 5, pp. 359–363, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. Z. Landau, M. Migdal, A. Lipovsky, and R. Lubart, “Visible light-induced healing of diabetic or venous foot ulcers: a placebo-controlled double-blind study,” Photomedicine and Laser Surgery, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 399–404, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. N. Houreld and H. Abrahamse, “Low-intensity laser irradiation stimulates wound healing in diabetic wounded fibroblast cells (WS1),” Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics, vol. 12, no. 12, pp. 971–978, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. K. Danno, N. Mori, K.-I. Toda, T. Kobayashi, and A. Utani, “Near-infrared irradiation stimulates cutaneous wound repair: laboratory experiments on possible mechanisms,” Photodermatology Photoimmunology and Photomedicine, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 261–265, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. E. Mester, A. F. Mester, and A. Mester, “The biomedical effects of laser application,” Lasers in Surgery and Medicine, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 31–39, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. D. Hawkins and H. Abrahamse, “Effect of multiple exposures of low-level laser therapy on the cellular responses of wounded human skin fibroblasts,” Photomedicine and Laser Surgery, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 705–714, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. J. Conlan, “Biostimulation of wound healing by low-energy laser irradiation: a review,” Journal of Clinical Periodontology, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 492–496, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. H. Baharvand, M. Soleimani, and H. Gourabi, “The effect of low level laser irradiation on human embryonic stem cells,” Yakhteh Medical Journal, vol. 7, no. 26, pp. 62–67, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  27. G. Pal, A. Dutta, K. Mitra et al., “Effect of low intensity laser interaction with human skin fibroblast cells using fiber-optic nano-probes,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B, vol. 86, no. 3, pp. 252–261, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. E. M. Vinck, B. J. Cagnie, M. J. Cornelissen, H. A. Declercq, and D. C. Cambier, “Increased fibroblast proliferation induced by light emitting diode and low power laser irradiation,” Lasers in Medical Science, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 95–99, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. N. Adamskaya, P. Dungel, R. Mittermayr et al., “Light therapy by blue LED improves wound healing in an excision model in rats,” Injury, vol. 42, no. 9, pp. 917–921, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. R. V. Gonçalves, J. M. S. Mezêncio, G. P. Benevides et al., “Effect of gallium-arsenide laser, gallium-aluminum-arsenide laser and healing ointment on cutaneous wound healing in Wistar rats,” Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 350–355, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. S. B. Rezende, M. S. Ribeiro, S. C. Núñez, V. G. Garcia, and E. P. Maldonado, “Effects of a single near-infrared laser treatment on cutaneous wound healing: biometrical and histological study in rats,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B, vol. 87, no. 3, pp. 145–153, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. U. K. Akyol and M. Güngörmüş, “Effect of biostimulation on healing of bone defects in diabetic rats,” Photomedicine and Laser Surgery, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 411–416, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. A. R. A. P. Medrado, L. S. Pugliese, S. R. A. Reis, and Z. A. Andrade, “Influence of low level laser therapy on wound healing and its biological action upon myofibroblasts,” Lasers in Surgery and Medicine, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 239–244, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. G. K. Reddy, “Comparison of the photostimulatory effects of visible He-Ne and infrared Ga-As lasers on healing impaired diabetic rat wounds,” Lasers in Surgery and Medicine, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 344–351, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. W. Posten, D. A. Wrone, J. S. Dover, K. A. Arndt, S. Silapunt, and M. Alam, “Low-level laser therapy for wound healing: mechanism and efficacy,” Dermatologic Surgery, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 334–340, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. F. L. Game, R. J. Hinchliffe, J. Apelqvist et al., “A systematic review of interventions to enhance the healing of chronic ulcers of the foot in diabetes,” Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews, vol. 28, supplement 1, pp. 119–141, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. F. Gottrup and J. Apelqvist, “Present and new techniques and devices in the treatment of DFU: a critical review of evidence,” Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews, vol. 28, supplement 1, pp. 64–71, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. A. L. Barbosa Pinheiro, D. H. Pozza, M. G. de Oliveira, R. Weissmann, and L. M. Pedreira Ramalho, “Polarized light (400–2000 nm) and non-ablative laser (685 nm): a description of the wound healing process using immunohistochemical analysis,” Photomedicine and Laser Surgery, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 485–492, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. N. Shimizu, M. Yamaguchi, T. Goseki et al., “Inhibition of prostaglandin E2 and interleukin 1-beta production by low-power laser irradiation in stretched human periodontal ligament cells,” Journal of Dental Research, vol. 74, no. 7, pp. 1382–1388, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. S. M. Safavi, B. Kazemi, M. Esmaeili, A. Fallah, A. Modarresi, and M. Mir, “Effects of low-level He-Ne laser irradiation on the gene expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, TGF-β, bFGF, and PDGF in rat's gingiva,” Lasers in Medical Science, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 331–335, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. A. Lipovsky, Y. Nitzan, A. Gedanken, and R. Lubart, “Visible light-induced killing of bacteria as a function of wavelength: implication for wound healing,” Lasers in Surgery and Medicine, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 467–472, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. C. S. Enwemeka, J. C. Parker, D. S. Dowdy, E. E. Harkness, L. E. Sanford, and L. D. Woodruff, “The efficacy of low-power lasers in tissue repair and pain control: a meta-analysis study,” Photomedicine and Laser Surgery, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 323–329, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. C. Lucas, R. W. Stanborough, C. L. Freeman, and R. J. de Haan, “Efficacy of low-level laser therapy on wound healing in human subjects: a systematic review,” Lasers in Medical Science, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 84–93, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. L. D. Woodruff, J. M. Bounkeo, W. M. Brannon et al., “The efficacy of laser therapy in wound repair: a meta-analysis of the literature,” Photomedicine and Laser Surgery, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 241–247, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. J. F. Sobanko and T. S. Alster, “Efficacy of low-level laser therapy for chronic cutaneous ulceration in humans: a review and discussion,” Dermatologic Surgery, vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 991–1000, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. J. M. Bjordal, R.-J. Bensadoun, J. Tunèr, L. Frigo, K. Gjerde, and R. A. Lopes-Martins, “A systematic review with meta-analysis of the effect of Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) in cancer therapy-induced oral mucositis,” Supportive Care in Cancer, vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 1069–1077, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. R. L.-C. Kwan, G. L.-Y. Cheing, S. K.-S. Vong, and S. K. Lo, “Electrophysical therapy for managing diabetic foot ulcers: a systematic review,” International Wound Journal, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 121–131, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  48. P. Santoianni, G. Monfrecola, D. Martellotta, and F. Ayala, “Inadequate effect of helium-neon laser on venous leg ulcers,” Photodermatology, vol. 1, no. 5, pp. 245–249, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. M. Malm and T. Lundeberg, “Effect of low power gallium arsenide laser on healing of venous ulcers,” Scandinavian Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Hand Surgery, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 249–251, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. R. Kokol, C. Berger, J. Haas, and D. Kopera, “685-nm low level laser therapy of venous leg ulcers. No improvement of wound healing with 685-nm low level laser therapy. Randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study,” Hautarzt, vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 570–575, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. I. Bihari and A. R. Mester, “The biostimulative effect of low level laser therapy of longstanding crural ulcers using helium neon laser, helium neon plus infrared lasers, and noncoherent light: preliminary report of a randomised double blind comparative study,” Laser Therapy, vol. 1, pp. 75–78, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  52. K. S. Caetano, M. A. C. Frade, D. G. Minatel, L. Á. Santana, and C. S. Enwemeka, “Phototherapy improves healing of chronic venous ulcers,” Photomedicine and Laser Surgery, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 111–118, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. A. K. Gupta, N. Filonenko, N. Salansky, and D. N. Sauder, “The use of low energy photon therapy (LEPT) in venous leg ulcers: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study,” Dermatologic Surgery, vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 1383–1386, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. F. M. Leclère, I. R. Puechguiral, G. Rotteleur, P. Thomas, and S. R. Mordon, “A prospective randomized study of 980 nm diode laser-assisted venous ulcer healing on 34 patients,” Wound Repair and Regeneration, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 580–585, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. A. L. Whinfield and I. Aitkenhead, “The light revival: does phototherapy promote wound healing? A review,” The Foot, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 117–124, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus