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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 851263, 15 pages
Research Article

Transcriptome Profiling of Wheat Seedlings following Treatment with Ultrahigh Diluted Arsenic Trioxide

1Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Bologna, Viale Fanin 44, 40127 Bologna, Italy
2Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, “La Sapienza” University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy
3Italian National Health System, Lombardy District, “Azienda Sanitaria Locale” Milan, Corso Italia 19, 20122 Milan, Italy

Received 7 August 2014; Revised 29 October 2014; Accepted 30 October 2014; Published 27 November 2014

Academic Editor: Kuttulebbai N. S. Sirajudeen

Copyright © 2014 Ilaria Marotti et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Plant systems are useful research tools to address basic questions in homeopathy as they make it possible to overcome some of the drawbacks encountered in clinical trials (placebo effect, ethical issues, duration of the experiment, and high costs). The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis whether 7-day-old wheat seedlings, grown from seeds either poisoned with a sublethal dose of As2O3 or unpoisoned, showed different significant gene expression profiles after the application of ultrahigh diluted As2O3 (beyond Avogadro’s limit) compared to water (control). The results provided evidence for a strong gene modulating effect of ultrahigh diluted As2O3 in seedlings grown from poisoned seeds: a massive reduction of gene expression levels to values comparable to those of the control group was observed for several functional classes of genes. A plausible hypothesis is that ultrahigh diluted As2O3 treatment induced a reequilibration of those genes that were upregulated during the oxidative stress by bringing the expression levels closer to the basal levels normally occurring in the control plants.