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Figure 2: Histological profiles of the fecal pellet-containing colons of loperamide-induced constipated rats treated with the vehicle control ((a), (b)), loperamide control ((c), (d)), 5 mg/kg FRe ((e), (f)), 10 mg/kg FRe ((g), (h)), yoghurt ((i), (j)), and BFRe 0.05% ((k), (l)), 0.1% ((m), (n)), and 1% ((o), (p)) (10 mL/kg). Note the marked decreases in the surface mucosal thickness of remnant fecal pellets in the colonic lumen, mucosal thickness. And mucous-producing cell numbers were detected in the loperamide control, as compared with the vehicle control. However, dramatic increases in these same parameters were detected after 6 days of continuous oral treatment of all test agents, as compared with the loperamide control. In addition, more favorable histopathological changes in the colonic mucosa and the surface mucous of remnant fecal pellets in the colon were detected with all three BFRe concentrations compared with equivalent doses of liquid yoghurt or FRe single formula. Yoghurt: Bulgaris, a brand of commercial yoghurt (Namyang, Korea). FRe: fermented rice extracts. BFRe: mixed formula consisting of yoghurt and the appropriate percentages (0.05, 0.1, and 1%) of FRe. Values are expressed mean SD of five rats. The arrow indicates the measured surface mucosal thickness. M, colonic mucosa; F, fecal pellets. All stained with Alcian Blue. Scale bars = 150 μm.