Table 4: Gastrointestinal charcoal transit ratio in loperamide-induced constipated rats after oral treatment of the test agents.

GroupsGastrointestinal motilities (during 30 min)
Total small intestine length (cm)Length of charcoal meal transferred (cm)Gastrointestinal charcoal transit ratio (%)

Controls
 Vehicle119.60 ± 2.72 87.00 ± 6.81 72.68 ± 4.16
 Loperamide121.50 ± 2.50 60.80 ± 4.15e 50.07 ± 3.82e
Single formula
  FRe 5 mg/kg119.70 ± 2.49 70.40 ± 4.97eg 58.86 ± 4.70eg
  FRe 10 mg/kg121.00 ± 3.32 73.10 ± 7.94fg 60.37 ± 5.71fg
  Yoghurt120.50 ± 1.87 76.00 ± 1.58eg 63.09 ± 1.88eg
Mixed formula
  BFRe 0.05%122.30 ± 3.05 78.14 ± 12.61h 64.00 ± 10.99
  BFRe 0.1%119.60 ± 1.52 95.14 ± 7.43g 79.57 ± 6.49g
  BFRe 1%120.70 ± 4.84104.70 ± 4.44eg 86.91 ± 6.18eg

Values are expressed as mean ± SD of five rats.
Yoghurt: Bulgaris, a brand of commercial yoghurt (Namyang, Korea).
FRe: fermented rice extracts.
BFRe: mixed formula consisting of yoghurt and the appropriate percentages (0.05, 0.1 and 1%) of FRe.
Charcoal transit ratio (%) = ((total small intestinal length − charcoal meal transit distance)/total small intestinal length) × 100.
e and f compared with the vehicle control by the MW test.
g and h compared with the loperamide control by the MW test.