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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 969342, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/969342
Research Article

Xanthoceraside Ameliorates Mitochondrial Dysfunction Contributing to the Improvement of Learning and Memory Impairment in Mice with Intracerebroventricular Injection of A 1-42

Department of Life Science and Biopharmaceutics, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016, China

Received 13 December 2013; Revised 4 April 2014; Accepted 18 April 2014; Published 25 May 2014

Academic Editor: Jing Yu Yang

Copyright © 2014 Xue-Fei Ji et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The effects of xanthoceraside on learning and memory impairment were investigated and the possible mechanism associated with the protection of mitochondria was also preliminarily explored in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) mice model induced by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of A 1-42. The results indicated that xanthoceraside (0.08–0.32 mg/kg) significantly improved learning and memory impairment in Morris water maze test and Y-maze test. Xanthoceraside significantly reversed the aberrant decrease of ATP levels and attenuated the abnormal increase of ROS levels both in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus in mice injected with A 1-42. Moreover, xanthoceraside dose dependently reversed the decrease of COX, PDHC, and KGDHC activity in isolated cerebral cortex mitochondria of the mice compared with A 1-42 injected model mice. In conclusion, xanthoceraside could improve learning and memory impairment, promote the function of mitochondria, decrease the production of ROS, and inhibit oxidative stress. The improvement effects on mitochondria may be through withstanding the damage of A to mitochondrial respiratory chain and the key enzymes in Kreb’s cycle. Therefore, the results from present study and previous study indicate that xanthoceraside could be a competitive candidate for the treatment of AD.