Effect of Oenothera odorata Root Extract on Microgravity and Disuse-Induced Muscle Atrophy
Effect of EVP on microgravity by 3D-Clinostat in C2C12 myoblasts. (a) Cytotoxicity of EVP in C2C12 myoblasts. C2C12 myoblasts were cultured in 96-well plates until confluent, and the medium was replaced with serum-free medium with or without EVP (0–100 μg/mL) for 24 hr. The EZ-Cytox reagent was added to the medium, and C2C12 myoblasts were incubated for 1 hr. The optical density was determined at 450 nm using a microplate reader. Shown are the mean values (±SD) from three experiments. (b) Cell viability on microgravity by 3D-clinostat. C2C12 myoblasts were cultured in 96-well plates until confluent and the medium then replaced a serum-free medium with the EVP (0–50 μg/mL). After preincubating for 24 hr, 3D-clinorotation was subjected for 24 hr with DMEM containing 10% (v/v) FBS. After PBS washing, the EZ-Cytox reagent was added to the medium, and the C2C12 myoblasts were incubated for an additional 1 hr. The optical density was determined at 450 nm by using a microplate reader. The cell viability was calculated by using the following equation: cell viability (%) = [(absorbance of the 3D-clinorotation sample/absorbance of the 3D-unrotated control) × 100]. Each value represents the mean (±SD) from three experiments, each performed in triplicate. versus microgravity alone.