Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 157367, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/157367
Research Article

Evaluation of Phototoxic and Skin Sensitization Potentials of PLA2-Free Bee Venom

1College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701, Republic of Korea
2Institute of Animal Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701, Republic of Korea
3Toxicity Screening Research Center, Gyeongnam Department of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Korea Institute of Toxicology (KIT), Jinju 660-844, Republic of Korea
4Chung Jin Biotech Co., Ltd., Hanyang University Business Center, Anshan-si 426-791, Republic of Korea
5Institutes of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701, Republic of Korea

Received 27 May 2015; Accepted 13 July 2015

Academic Editor: Svein Haavik

Copyright © 2015 Yunwi Heo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. K.-H. Kim, W.-R. Lee, H.-J. An et al., “Bee venom ameliorates compound 48/80-induced atopic dermatitis-related symptoms,” International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology, vol. 6, no. 12, pp. 2896–2903, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. C. Kim, Bee Venom Therapy and Bee Acupuncture Therapy, 1992.
  3. L. Doyle, “The therapeutic effectiveness of bee venom,” NAAS Proceeding, vol. 3, pp. 50–51, 1980. View at Google Scholar
  4. M. S. Lee, M. H. Pittler, B.-C. Shin, J. C. Kong, and E. Ernst, “Bee venom acupuncture for musculoskeletal pain: a review,” Journal of Pain, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 289–297, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. K. Sobotka, R. M. Franklin, N. F. Adkinson Jr., M. Valentine, H. Baer, and L. M. Lichtenstein, “Allergy to insect stings. II. Phospholipase A: the major allergen in honeybee venom,” The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 29–40, 1976. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. L. Fuly, S. Calil-Elias, R. B. Zingali, J. A. Guimarães, and P. A. Melo, “Myotoxic activity of an acidic phospholipase A2 isolated from Lachesis muta (Bushmaster) snake venom,” Toxicon, vol. 38, no. 7, pp. 961–972, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. E. B. R. de Turco, F. R. Jackson, M. A. DeCoster, M. Kolko, and N. G. Bazan, “Glutamate signalling and secretory phospholipase A2 modulate the release of arachidonic acid from neuronal membranes,” Journal of Neuroscience Research, vol. 68, no. 5, pp. 558–567, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. H. Lee, M. Pyo, S. K. Bae et al., “Improved therapeutic profiles of PLA2-free bee venom prepared by ultrafiltration method,” Toxicological Research, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 33–40, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. A. M. Api, “In vitro assessment of phototoxicity,” In Vitro and Molecular Toxicology, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 339–350, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. H. Epstein, “Phototoxicity and photoallergy in man,” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 141–147, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. K. Maier, R. Schmitt-Landgraf, and B. Siegemund, “Development of an in vitro test system with human skin cells for evaluation of phototoxicity,” Toxicology in Vitro, vol. 5, no. 5-6, pp. 457–461, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. OECD, In Vitro 3T3 NRU Phototoxicity Test. OECD Guideline for the Testing of Chemicals No. 432, OECD, 2004.
  13. I. Kimber and D. A. Basketter, “The murine local lymph node assay: a commentary on collaborative studies and new directions,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 165–169, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. OECD, Skin Sensitization: Local Lymph Node Assay: BrdU-ELISA, 432, 2010.
  15. H. Lee, S. K. Bae, M. Pyo et al., “Anti-wrinkle effect of PLA2-free bee venom against UVB-irradiated human skin cells,” Journal of Agriculture and Life Science, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 125–135, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. P. Frost, G. D. Weinstein, and E. C. Gomez, “Phototoxic potential of minocycline and doxycycline,” Archives of Dermatology, vol. 105, no. 5, pp. 681–683, 1972. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. I. E. Kochevar, “Phototoxicity mechanisms: chlorpromazine photosensitized damage to DNA and cell membranes,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 59–64, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. R. Woolhiser, A. E. Munson, and B. J. Meade, “Comparison of mouse strains using the local lymph node assay,” Toxicology, vol. 146, no. 2-3, pp. 221–227, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. O. C. Ulker, Y. Kaymak, and A. Karakaya, “Allergenicity evaluation of fragrance mix and its ingredients by using ex vivo local lymph node assay-BrdU endpoints,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 65, pp. 162–167, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. Wallengren and B. Larsson, “Nitric oxide participates in prick test and irritant patch test reactions in human skin,” Archives of Dermatological Research, vol. 293, no. 3, pp. 121–125, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. D. A. Basketter, G. F. Gerberick, I. Kimber, and S. E. Loveless, “The local lymph node assay: a viable alternative to currently accepted skin sensitization tests,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 34, no. 10, pp. 985–997, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. T. Ashikaga, Y. Yoshida, M. Hirota et al., “Development of an in vitro skin sensitization test using human cell lines: the human Cell Line Activation Test (h-CLAT): I. Optimization of the h-CLAT protocol,” Toxicology in Vitro, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 767–773, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus