Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 162145, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/162145
Research Article

Panax notoginseng Saponins Attenuate Phenotype Switching of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Induced by Notch3 Silencing

1Department of Neurology, Military General Hospital of Beijing PLA, Beijing 100700, China
2191 Clinical Department, 303 Hospital of People’s Liberation Army, Guigang, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region 537105, China
3Key Laboratory of Chinese Internal Medicine of Ministry of Education and Beijing Dongzhimen Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100700, China

Received 16 April 2015; Revised 20 May 2015; Accepted 30 May 2015

Academic Editor: Dan Hu

Copyright © 2015 Nan Liu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. Tedgui and Z. Mallat, “Cytokines in atherosclerosis: pathogenic and regulatory pathways,” Physiological Reviews, vol. 86, no. 2, pp. 515–581, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. T. L. Henshall, A. Keller, L. He et al., “Notch3 is necessary for blood vessel integrity in the central nervous system,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 409–420, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. W. Zhang, G. Chen, and C.-Q. Deng, “Effects and mechanisms of total Panax notoginseng saponins on proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells with plasma pharmacology method,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 139–145, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. P. Chan, G. N. Thomas, and B. Tomlinson, “Protective effects of trilinolein extracted from Panax notoginseng against cardiovascular disease,” Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, vol. 23, no. 12, pp. 1157–1162, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. K.-W. Leung, H.-M. Ng, M. K. S. Tang, C. C. K. Wong, R. N. S. Wong, and A. S. T. Wong, “Ginsenoside-Rg1 mediates a hypoxia-independent upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α to promote angiogenesis,” Angiogenesis, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 515–522, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. Y.-G. Zhang, H.-G. Zhang, G.-Y. Zhang et al., “Panax notoginseng saponins attenuate atherosclerosis in rats by regulating the blood lipid profile and an anti-inflammatory action,” Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, vol. 35, no. 10, pp. 1238–1244, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. L. Wu, W. Zhang, Y.-H. Tang et al., “Effect of total saponins of ‘panax notoginseng root’ on aortic intimal hyperplasia and the expressions of cell cycle protein and extracellular matrix in rats,” Phytomedicine, vol. 17, no. 3-4, pp. 233–240, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. Wang, L. Wu, W. Zhang, and C. Deng, “Effect of Panax notoginseng saponins on vascular intima hyperplasia and PCNA expression in rat aorta after balloon angioplasty,” Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 735–739, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. Z. Yuan, Y. Liao, G. Tian et al., “Panax notoginseng saponins inhibit Zymosan A induced atherosclerosis by suppressing integrin expression, FAK activation and NF-kappaB translocation,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 138, no. 1, pp. 150–155, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. L. Xu, J.-T. Liu, N. Liu, P.-P. Lu, and X.-M. Pang, “Effects of Panax notoginseng saponins on proliferation and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 137, no. 1, pp. 226–230, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. T. Wang, M. Baron, and D. Trump, “An overview of Notch3 function in vascular smooth muscle cells,” Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, vol. 96, no. 1–3, pp. 499–509, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. V. Domenga, P. Fardoux, P. Lacombe et al., “Notch3 is required for arterial identity and maturation of vascular smooth muscle cells,” Genes and Development, vol. 18, no. 22, pp. 2730–2735, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. G. Zhu, H. Chen, and W. Zhang, “Phenotype switch of vascular smooth muscle cells after siRNA silencing of filamin,” Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 47–52, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. F. T. L. van der Loop, G. Schaart, E. D. J. Timmer, F. C. S. Ramaekers, and G. J. J. M. van Eys, “Smoothelin, a novel cytoskeletal protein specific for smooth muscle cells,” Journal of Cell Biology, vol. 134, no. 2, pp. 401–411, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. C. M. Shanahan, P. L. Weissberg, and J. C. Metcalfe, “Isolation of gene markers of differentiated and proliferating vascular smooth muscle cells,” Circulation Research, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 193–204, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. V. Lesauskaite, M. C. Epistolato, M. Castagnini, S. Urbonavicius, and P. Tanganelli, “Expression of matrix metalloproteinases, their tissue inhibitors, and osteopontin in the wall of thoracic and abdominal aortas with dilatative pathology,” Human Pathology, vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 1076–1084, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. G. K. Owens, M. S. Kumar, and B. R. Wamhoff, “Molecular regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation in development and disease,” Physiological Reviews, vol. 84, no. 3, pp. 767–801, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. G.-M. Zhu, H.-E. Guo, and W.-W. Zhang, “Knockdown of Notch3 expression in VSMC by RNA interference,” Chinese Journal of Geriatric Heart Brain and Vessel Diseases, vol. 12, pp. 1127–1129, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  19. A. Ishiko, A. Shimizu, E. Nagata, K. Takahashi, T. Tabira, and N. Suzuki, “Notch3 ectodomain is a major component of granular osmiophilic material (GOM) in CADASIL,” Acta Neuropathologica, vol. 112, no. 3, pp. 333–339, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. A. C. Doran, N. Meller, and C. A. McNamara, “Role of smooth muscle cells in the initiation and early progression of atherosclerosis,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 812–819, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. S. Tikka, Y. Peng Ng, G. Di Maio et al., “CADASIL mutations and shRNA silencing of NOTCH3 affect actin organization in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, vol. 32, no. 12, pp. 2171–2180, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. C. P. Regan, P. J. Adam, C. S. Madsen, and G. K. Owens, “Molecular mechanisms of decreased smooth muscle differentiation marker expression after vascular injury,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 106, no. 9, pp. 1139–1147, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. B. Shi, C. Cui, X. P. Long et al., “Effects of CGRP and CGRP receptor modified mesenchymal stem cells on proliferation and phenotypic transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells,” National Medical Journal of China, vol. 93, no. 30, pp. 2372–2376, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. H. Gao, M. C. Steffen, and K. S. Ramos, “Osteopontin regulates α-smooth muscle actin and calponin in vascular smooth muscle cells,” Cell Biology International, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 155–161, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus