Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2015 / Article / Tab 4

Review Article

Propolis: A Complex Natural Product with a Plethora of Biological Activities That Can Be Explored for Drug Development

Table 4

Immunomodulatory activity of propolis and its chemical constituents.

OriginPropolis type/plant sourceType of extract/isolated compound(s)Species/cellsEffectReferences

BrazilGreen propolis/B. dracunculifolia PEEMale BALB/c miceUpregulation of toll-like receptor-2 and receptor-4 expression and increases in interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 production[105]
Upregulation of toll-like receptor-2 and receptor-4 mRNA expression[111]
Male C57BL/6 mice, B16F10 cell lineStimulation of the expression and production of interleukin-2 and interleukin-10 and Th1 cytokine (interleukin-2 and IFN-γ) production[192]
Male BALB/c miceInhibition of Th1 cells generation; reduction of the frequency of IFN-γ-producing CD4+ T cells under Th1-polarizing conditions[118]
Male BALB/c miceIncrease of H2O2 generation and decreases in the NO generation in peritoneal macrophages[109]
Male BALB/c miceIncrease in the interiorization and killing of the parasites Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis by macrophages; increase in TNF-α production and decrease in interleukin-12 production[117]
Monocytes from human bloodTLR-4 and CD80 expression in human monocytes as well as TNF- α and IL-10 production[113]
Melanoma cells (B16F10); male C57BL/6 miceReduction of IL-1β and IL-6 in LPS-stressed mice; induction of IL-1β and IL-6 and Th1 cytokines in melanoma-bearing mice submitted or not to chronic stress[115]

Purchased: Acros Organics
Green propolis/B. dracunculifolia
Characteristic of European, Brazilian, Russian, Mediterranean, and Australian type propolis
cinnamic and coumaric acids
Male BALB/c miceStimulation of interleukin-1β production and inhibition of interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 productions[116]

Purchased: Acros OrganicsCharacteristic of European, Brazilian, and Mediterranean propolisCaffeic acidMonocytes from human bloodStimulation of monocytes activity against C. albicans; downregulation of TLR-2 and HLA-DR expression and inhibition of cytokine production[114]

Purchased: Acros OrganicsCharacteristic of European, Brazilian, Russian, Mediterranean, and Australian type propolisCinnamic acidMonocytes from human bloodDownregulation of toll-like receptor-2, HLA-DR molecules from human antigen-presenting cells, and CD80; upregulation of toll-like receptor-4, inhibition of TNF-α and interleukin-10 production[193]
Purchased: Sigma Aldrich Co.Cinnamic acidFemale IRC miceIncrease of lymphocyte proliferation and release of cytokines interleukin-1 and interleukin-2[106]

BrazilGreen propolis/Baccharis dracunculifolia Hydroalcoholic (HPE) solutionMale BALB/c miceIncrease of H2O2 generation and decrease of NO generation[107]
Male BALB/c miceDecrease of splenocyte proliferation and increase of IFN-γ production by spleen cells[108]

IndonesiaThe Pacific region propolis/Macaranga tanarius and M. indica HPEMale BALB/c miceIncrease of IgG generation and macrophage phagocytosis activity and capacity[110]

TurkeyMediterranean propolis/Populus spp., Eucalyptus spp., and Castanea sativa PEEPeripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy humansSuppression of neopterin release and tryptophan degradation, downregulation of the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and decrease of IFN-γ and TNF-α levels[194]

Purchased: Sigma Aldrich Co.Characteristic of European type propolisCAPEHuman monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs) generated from peripheral monocytesInhibition of IL-12 p40, IL-12 p70, IL-10, IFN-γ-inducible protein- (IP-) 10 levels; inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation and NF-κB activation[112]
Female BALB/c miceIncrease of IgM antibody production, T lymphocyte proliferation, interleukin-4 and interleukin-2 production by splenocytes, and IFN-γ production[195]
Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, jurkat cellsInhibition of transcription factors NF-κB and NFAT; inhibition of interleukin-2 gene transcription, interleukin-2 receptor expression, and proliferation of human T cells[94]

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