Review Article

Propolis: A Complex Natural Product with a Plethora of Biological Activities That Can Be Explored for Drug Development

Table 5

Antiviral activity of propolis and its chemical constituents.

OriginPropolis type/plant sourceType of extract/isolated compound(s)Species/cells/virusesEffectReferences

Purchased: Sigma Aldrich Co.Characteristic of European type propolisCaffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, benzoic acid, galangin, pinocembrin, and chrysinRC-37 cells, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) strain KOSHigh anti-HSV-1 activity for both extracts when cells were treated prior to viral infection[123]
Czech RepublicEuropean propolis/Populus nigra PEE and PWERC-37 cells, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2)High antiherpetic activity for both extracts when viruses were pretreated prior to infection[196]

BrazilBrown propolis/B. dracunculifolia HPEHSV-2 strain propagated in Vero cells, female BALB/c miceEffective against HSV-2 infection and in reducing extravaginal lesions by acting on inflammatory and oxidative processes; reducing reactive species, tyrosine nitration, ascorbic acid levels, and myeloperoxidase activity and protecting against inhibition of catalase activity[124]
Characteristic of Brazilian propolisIsopentyl ferulate (isolated from an PEE)Influenza viruses A/PR/8/34 (H1N1), A/Krasnodar/101/59 (H2N2), and A/Hong Kong/1/68 (H3N2)Suppression of influenza virus A/Hong Kong reproduction in vitro [121]
Green propolis/B. dracunculifolia, B. erioclada, Myrceugenia euosma PEEInfluenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) virus propagated Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, female DBA/2 Cr miceReduction of body weight loss of infected mice and virus yields in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of lungs[122]

FranceEuropean propolis/Populus nigra PEERC-37 cells, HSV-1 strain H29S, acyclovir resistant mutant HSV1-R strain H29R, HSV-2, adenovirus type 2, poliovirus type 2, and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)Reduction of titre of herpes virus, being vesicular stomatitis virus and adenovirus less susceptible; virucidal action on the enveloped viruses HSV and VSV[120]

BrazilGeopropolis from the stingless bee Scaptotrigona postica Hydromethanolic extractAfrican green monkey kidney cells (ATCC CCL-81); herpes simplex virus strain (McIntyre)Inhibition of HSV replication and entry into cells[125]

SynthesizedCharacteristic of Brazilian red and green propolisHomoisoflavonoids, specially 3-benzyl-4-chromonesBGM (Buffalo Green Monkey) cells, coxsackie viruses B3, B4, and A9 and echovirus 30Good antiviral activity against the coxsackie viruses B3, B4, and A9 and echovirus 30[126]

CanadaEuropean propolis/P. trichocarpa and P. tremuloides PEEHSV-1 and HSV-2 virus replicated in MDBK (monolayer cultures of Madin-Darby bovine kidney) cellsImpairing the ability of the virus to adsorb or to penetrate the host cells[197]

BrazilGreen propolis/Baccharis dracunculifolia Water extractsFemale BALB/c mice, Influenza A virus strain A/WSN/33 (H1N1)Extension of the lifetime of mice. 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid which increases mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing and decreases H1N1 hemagglutinin mRNA [198]
Characteristic of Brazilian green propolis3,4-Dicaffeoylquinic acid (Isolated from Brazilian propolis)

BrazilCharacteristic of Brazilian green propolisMelliferone, moronic acid, anwuweizonic acid, and betulonic acid (isolated from Brazilian propolis)H9 lymphocytes, HIV-1Moronic acid inhibiting anti-HIV replication[129]

IsraelMediterranean propolis/Populus spp., Eucalyptus spp., and Castanea sativa PWEJurkat, uninfected human T-cell lines, and MT2 (HTLV-1 infected human T cells) cellsInhibition of the activation of NF-κB-dependent promoter by Tax and prevention of Tax binding to IκBα and its degradation [127]
Purchased: Sigma Aldrich Co.Characteristic of European propolisCAPE

Provided by Binzhou Animal
Science and Veterinary Medicine Academy of Shandong
Nanometer propolis FlavoneKidney cells (PK-15)
Porcine parvovirus (PPV)
Britain White guinea pigs
Inhibition of PPV infecting porcine kidney- (PK-) 15 cells
Restraining of PPV copy in lung, gonad, and blood, decrease of the impact of PPV on weight of guinea pigs, and increase of hemagglutination inhibition of PPV in serum as well as improving the contents of IL-2, IL-6, and -IFN

USA and ChinaEuropean propolis/Populus nigra PEEPeripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from blood of healthy donors, microglial cells isolated from human fetal brain tissue, HIV-1AT, HIV-1SF162Inhibition of HIV-1 variants expression [119]
BrazilGreen propolis/Baccharis dracunculifolia