Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2015 / Article / Tab 6

Review Article

Propolis: A Complex Natural Product with a Plethora of Biological Activities That Can Be Explored for Drug Development

Table 6

Antibacterial activity of propolis and its chemical constituents.

OriginPropolis type/plant sourceType of extract/isolated compound(s)SpeciesEffectReferences

Purchased: Bee Health Ltd. (Scarborough, Yorkshire, UK);European propolis/Populus nigra; PEEB. subtilis SG38, E. coli, and R. sphaeroides Influencing the ion permeability of the inner bacterial membrane;
Inhibition of bacterial motility
Purchased: Sigma
Chemical Co. (Poole, Dorset, UK)
Characteristic of European, Brazilian, and Mediterranean propolisCaffeic acid, CAPE, quercetin, and naringenin

GreeceMediterranean propolis/probably Conifer spp.Terpenes (isolated from Cretan propolis)S. aureus (ATCC 25923), S. epidermidis (ATCC 12228), E. coli (ATCC 25922), E. cloacae (ATCC13047), K. pneumoniae (ATCC 13883), and P. aeruginosa (ATCC 227853)Influencing the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria viability[199]

FranceEuropean propolis/Populus nigra Dichloromethane extractGram-negative: 7 Acinetobacter baumannii (RCH, SAN008, 12, AYE, CIP7034, 107292, and 5377), 2 Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 and a clinical isolate), 3 Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853 and two clinical isolates), and 4 clinical isolates of Enterobacter cloacae, E. aerogenes, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Salmonella enteritidis (phage type 4)
Gram-negative: 13 Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923, six methicillin-susceptible clinical isolates, and six methicillin-resistant clinical isolates), 2 clinical isolates of S. epidermidis (methiS and methiR), 3 clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis and 1 E. faecium, and 1 clinical isolate of Corynebacterium striatum
Influencing the Gram-positive bacteria viability specially S. aureus and several of its methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible[133]

BulgariaMediterranean propolisPEES. aureus 209; E. coli WF+, Decrease of S. aureus growth and weak or lack of activity against E. coli [28]
GreecePopulus spp.
TurkeyConifer spp.
AlgeriaPopulus spp., Eucalyptus spp., and Castanea sativa Populus spp.
Cistus spp.

AustraliaAustralian propolis from stingless bee Tetragonula carbonaria/C. torelliana trees (fruit resins)PEES. aureus (ATCC 25923);
P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)
Inhibition of S. aureus growth[42]

Cameroon and CongoAfrican propolis/probably M. schweinfurthii PEES. aureus (ATCC 25923), S. epidermis (ATCC 13047), E. coli (ATCC 25922), Klebsiella pneumonia (ATCC 13883), and P. aeruginosa (ATCC 227853)Inhibition of S. aureus growth[53]

BrazilGreen propolis/B. dracunculifolia PEES. aureus 2979 and S. aureus 4118 isolated from mastitic cows, S. aureus (ATCC 29213)Decrease of S. aureus growth in complex media and killing of S. aureus cells resuspended in milk; promotion of changes in morphology and cell size[200]

Czech RepublicEuropean propolis/Populus nigra Dimethylsulfoxide extractS. aureus (CAPM 5970), E. faecalis (CAPM 5613 (EBF/30/39)), E. coli (CAMP 3101T (U 5/41)), and L. monocytogenes (CCM 5580)Different concentrations affect the growth of the tested bacteria[201]

ItalyMediterranean propolis/Crupessus spp. PEEStaphylococcus spp. strains (35 S. aureus, 63 S. epidermidis, 7 S. hominis, 18 S. haemolyticus, 10 S. warneri, 4 S. capitis, and 3 S. auricularis) and Streptococcus spp. strains (59 S. faecalis, 30 S. viridans, 15 S. β-haemolyticus, and 19 S. pneumoniae)Complete suppression of the factor coagulase, reduction of lipase and prevention of biofilm formation of Staphylococcus; increase of the effect of ampicillin, gentamycin, and streptomycin and moderating the action of chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone, and vancomycin[56]

BrazilRed propolis/D. ecastophyllum; Green propolis/B. dracunculifolia PEES. aureus (ATCC 25923)NanoHA matrix with red and green propolis which reduces bacterial growth and biofilm formation, the nanoHA with red propolis being the most efficient[136]

PolandEuropean propolis/Populus nigra and some species of Betula alba, Alus glutinosa, Aesculus hippocastanum, Fagus sylvatica Coagulase-positive S. aureus strains isolated from blood clinical samples, S. aureus (ATCC 25923), S. aureus (ATCC 43300), methicillin-sensitive and resistant S. aureus Inhibition of S. aureus growth and bactericidal activity; potentiation of antistaphylococcal drugs action; effective against twelve S. aureus strains, with MIC values within 0.39 to 0.78 mg/mL and MBC within 0.78 to 3.13 mg/mL[132]



Green propolis/B. dracunculifolia;

Mediterranean propolis/Populus spp.;
PEES. typhi (00238)Brazilian propolis having bacteriostatic activity; Bulgarian propolis having bactericidal activity; both having similar synergetic effect when in combination with amoxicillin, ampicillin, and cephalexin[202]
S. typhimurium
Male BALB/c mice
Increase of bactericidal activity of macrophages[203]
S. typhimurium Both samples having antibacterial activity but no synergistic effects with ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and cotrimoxazole[135]

TurkeyMediterranean propolis/Populus spp., Eucalyptus spp. and Castanea sativa PWE M. tuberculosis (H37Rv), male guinea-pigInhibition of tuberculosis infection in guinea-pigs since it promotes a decrease in necrosis formation and increase in granuloma formation[204]
PEEE. coli (ATCC 35218), K. pneumoniae (ATCC 27736), P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Morganella morganii (clinical isolate), S. aureus (ATCC 25923), B. subtilis (ATCC 6633), and Proteus vulgaris Inhibition of Gram-negative bacteria growth[134]
Purchased from Sigma Aldrich Co.Characteristic of European propolisCAPEH. pylori Competitive inhibitor against H. pylori peptide deformylase, blocking substrate entrance[131]

We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions.