Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2015 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Active Compounds of Rhubarb Root and Rhizome in Animal Model Experiments of Focal Cerebral Ischemia

Table 1

Study characteristics of included studies.

StudySpecies ()WeightRandom methodStroke modelRhubarb effective componentMethod of administrationThe method to execute the animal Outcome measure (experimental/control)Intergroup differences
Experimental groupControl group

Li et al. 2005 [16]Male, SD rats (10/10)300 ± 50 gRandom digits tablePermanent MCAORhubarb aglycone4 d before occlusion; i.g; 103.68 mg/kg, daily4 d before occlusion; i.g; same volume of normal saline, daily Not mentioned(1) Neurobehavioral score 
(2) Infarction size
(1)
(2)

Li et al. 2011 [17]Male and female, SD rats (8/8)300 ± 50 gNot mentionedEmbolic MCAO Rhubarb aglycone4 h before occlusion; i.g; 12.96 mg/kg, daily4 h before occlusion; i.g; same volume of normal saline, dailyNot mentioned(1) Neurobehavioral score 
(2) Infarction size
(1)
(2)

Li et al. 2005 [18]Male, SD rats (8/10)300 ± 50 gRandom digits tablePermanent MCAORhubarb aglycone5 d before occlusion; i.g; 25.92 mg/kg, dailyMCAO without any interventionNot mentionedNeurobehavioral score

Li et al. 2007 [19]Male and female, SD rats (10/10)300 ± 50 gRandom digits tablePermanent MCAORhubarb aglycone3 d before occlusion; i.p; 103.68 mg/kg, daily3 d before occlusion; i.p; same volume of normal saline, dailyNot mentioned(1) Neurobehavioral score 
(2) Infarction size
(1)
(2) Not found

Li et al. 2005 [20] Male and female, SD rats (6/6)300 ± 50 gRandom digits tablePermanent MCAORhubarb aglycone3 d before occlusion; i.p; 103.68 mg/kg, daily3 d before occlusion; i.p; same volume of normal saline, dailyNot mentioned(1) Neurobehavioral score 
(2) Infarction size
(1)
(2)

Liu et al. 2005 [21]Male, SD rats (8/10; 8/10)300 ± 50 gNot mentionedPermanent MCAORhubarb aglycone5 d before occlusion; i.g; 25.92 mg/kg, dailyMCAO without any interventionNot mentionedNeurobehavioral score
Rhubarb glycosides5 d before occlusion; i.g; 174.96 mg/kg, dailyNeurobehavioral score

Li et al. 2004 [22]Male, SD rats (8/10; 8/10)300 ± 20 gRandom digits tablePermanent MCAORhubarb aglycone5 d before occlusion; i.g; 25.92 mg/kg, dailyMCAO without any interventionNot mentionedNeurobehavioral score
Rhubarb glycosides5 d before occlusion; i.g; 174.96 mg/kg, dailyNeurobehavioral score

Li et al. 2004 [23]Male, SD rats (8/10; 8/10)300 ± 50 gRandom digits tablePermanent MCAORhubarb glycosides3 d before occlusion; i.p; 174.96 mg/kg, dailyMCAO without any interventionNot mentionedNeurobehavioral score
Rhubarb aglycone3 d before occlusion; i.p; 25.92 mg/kg, dailyNeurobehavioral score

Liu et al. 2004 [24]Male, SD rats (10/9; 9/9; 10/9; 8/9; 9/9; 9/9)300 ± 50 gRandom digits tablePermanent MCAORhubarb aglycone3 d before occlusion; i.p; 25.92 mg/kg, dailyMCAO without any interventionNot mentioned(1) Neurobehavioral score 
(2) Infarction size
(1)
(2)
Emodin3 d before occlusion; i.p; 1.404 mg/kg, daily(1) Neurobehavioral score 
(2) Infarction size
(1)
(2)  
Aloe-emodin3 d before occlusion; i.p; 0.648 mg/kg, daily(1) Neurobehavioral score 
(2) Infarction size
(1)
(2) Not found
Physcion3 d before occlusion; i.p; 1.08 mg/kg, daily(1) Neurobehavioral score 
(2) Infarction size
(1) Not found 
(2) Not found
Rhein3 d before occlusion; i.p; 3.46 mg/kg, daily(1) Neurobehavioral score 
(2) Infarction size
(1) Not found 
(2)
Chrysophanol3 d before occlusion; i.p; 7.88 mg/kg, daily  (1) Neurobehavioral score 
(2) Infarction size
(1)
(2)

Tan et al. 2010 [25]Male, SD rats (5/5)250–320 gNot mentionedTemporary MCAOEmodin30 min before occlusion; i.p; 25 mg/kgMCAO without any interventionAnesthetized (1) Neurobehavioral score 
(2) Infarction size
(1)
(2)

Wu et al. 2009 [26]Male, SD rats (6/6)270–300 gRandom digits tableTemporary MCAOEmodin3 d before occlusion; i.p; 25 mg/kg, daily3 d before occlusion; i.p; same volume of normal saline, dailyNot mentionedNeurobehavioral score

Wang et al. 2005 [27]Male and female, SD rats (10/10; 10/10)300 ± 50 gRandom digits tablePermanent MCAOEmodin3 d before occlusion; i.p; 5.616 mg/kg, daily3 d before occlusion; i.p; same volume of normal saline, dailyNot mentioned(1) Neurobehavioral score 
(2) Infarction size
(1)
(2)
Aloe-emodin3 d before occlusion; i.p; 0.162 mg/kg, daily(1) Neurobehavioral score 
(2) Infarction size
(1)
(2)

Li et al. 2005 [28]Male and female, SD rats (10/10)300 ± 50 gRandom digits tablePermanent MCAOEmodin3 d before occlusion; i.p; 5.616 mg/kg, daily3 d before occlusion; i.p; same volume of normal saline, dailyNot mentioned(1) Neurobehavioral score 
(2) Infarction size
(1)
(2)

Chen et al. 2006 [29]Male, SD rats (12/12)250–320 gNot mentionedTemporary MCAOPhyscion3 d before occlusion; i.g; 40 mg/kg, daily3 d before occlusion; i.p; same volume of normal saline, dailyAnesthetized(1) Neurobehavioral score 
(2) Infarction volume
(1)
(2)

Mei et al. 2009 [30]Male, SD rats (12/12)250–320 gNot mentionedTemporary MCAOPhyscion3 d before occlusion; i.g; 60 mg/kg, dailyMCAO without any interventionNot mentioned(1) Neurobehavioral score 
(2) Infarction volume
(1)
(2)

Chen et al. 2007 [31]Male, SD rats (10/10)250–320 gNot mentionedTemporary MCAOPhyscion3 d before occlusion; i.g; 40 mg/kg, dailyMCAO without any interventionNot mentioned(1) Neurobehavioral score 
(2) Infarction volume
(1)
(2)

Song et al. 2011 [32] Male, Kunming mice (15/15; 15/15)28.0 ± 0.9 gNot mentioned Temporarily obstructing bilateral common carotid arteries (Himori method)Chrysophanol14 d after occlusion; i.p; 10.0 mg/kg, daily14 d before occlusion; i.p; same volume of normal saline, dailyAnesthetizedNeurobehavioral scoreNot found
Chrysophanol liposome14 d after occlusion; i.p; 10.0 mg/kg, dailyNeurobehavioral scoreNot found

Zhang et al. 2014 [33]Male, CD1 mice (6/6)25∼30 gNot mentionedTemporary MCAOChrysophanol30 minutes before occlusion; i.p; 10.0 mg/kg, daily30 minutes before occlusion; i.p; same volume of normal saline, dailyAnesthetized(1) Neurobehavioral score 
(2) Infarction size
(1)
(2)

Chen et al. 2015 [14]Male, SD rats (20/20)Random digits tablePermanent MCAOPhyscion3 d before occlusion; i.g; 40 mg/kg, daily3 d before occlusion; i.p; same volume of normal saline, dailyNot mentioned(1) Neurobehavioral score 
(2) Infarction volume
(1)
(2)

Guan et al. 2014 [15]Male, Wistar rats (6/6)280 ± 20 gNot mentioned Permanent MCAORhubarb aglycone4 d before occlusion; i.g; aloe-emodin 50 mg/kg, rhein 76 mg/kg, emodin 38 mg/kg, chrysophanol 105 mg/kg, physcion 68 mg/kg, daily4 d before occlusion; i.g; same volume of 0.5% CMC-Na suspensionNot mentioned (1) Neurobehavioral score 
(2) Infarction size
(1)
(2)

Note: rhubarb aglycone referred to the five components including aloe-emodin, rhein, emodin, chrysophanol, and physcion. Rhubarb glycosides referred to anthraquinone glycosides and double anthrone glycoside. IL-1β: interleukin-1β; MDH: malate dehydrogenase; MCAO: middle carotid artery occlusion; NALP3: NACHT domain-, leucine-rich repeat-, and pyrin domain-containing protein 3; NF-KB: nuclear factor-kappa B; SOD: superoxide dismutase; TGF-β: transforming growth factor beta; TNF-α: tumor necrosis factor-α; VCAM-1: vascular cell adhesion molecule.

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