Table 3: Unadjusted means of College Learning Effectiveness Inventory (CLEI) and computer cognitive tasks at week 3 and week 15 for the intervention group and control group ().

VariableMean (standard deviation)P value
InterventionControl
Pretest score
(week 3)
Posttest score
(week 15)
scorePretest score
(week 3)
Posttest score
(week 15)
score

College Learning Effectiveness Inventory (CLEI)

Full scale score127.3 ± 17.5129.8 ± 17.52.5 ± 11.1127.4 ± 19.2127.7 ± 18.90.3 ± 9.20.063
(1) Emotional satisfaction score17.4 ± 3.317.7 ± 3.30.3 ± 2.817.5 ± 3.517.7 ± 3.60.2 ± 2.10.641
(2) Management score13.8 ± 2.714.0 ± 2.80.2 ± 2.213.2 ± 3.013.1 ± 2.8−0.1 ± 1.80.267
(3) Achievement17.0 ± 3.017.1 ± 3.10.1 ± 2.417.1 ± 3.317.1 ± 3.30.0 ± 2.00.601
(4) Stress17.3 ± 2.717.2 ± 2.7−0.1 ± 2.216.4 ± 3.4 16.5 ± 3.10.1 ± 2.00.541
(5) Attention to study16.6 ± 3.316.5 ± 3.2−0.1 ± 2.416.3 ± 3.416.4 ± 3.10.2 ± 2.00.340
(6) Class communication12.0 ± 2.411.8 ± 2.5−0.2 ± 1.712.5 ± 2.7 12.6 ± 2.50.1 ± 1.4 0.155
(7) Confidence10.8 ± 2.110.8 ± 2.1−0.1 ± 1.810.6 ± 2.610.8 ± 2.50.2 ± 1.70.246
(8) Involvement with college activity12.8 ± 2.112.8 ± 2.10.0 ± 2.113.0 ± 2.613.0 ± 2.5−0.1 ± 1.80.687
(9) Friendship11.0 ± 2.010.6 ± 2.1−0.3 ± 1.910.7 ± 2.310.8 ± 2.10.1 ± 1.60.050

Computer cognitive task

(1) Digit vigilance task
 Accuracy (%)81.8 ± 16.186.4 ± 11.84.6 ± 20.380.1 ± 14.581.6 ± 15.71.5 ± 21.90.348
 Reaction time (msec)32.8 ± 6.230.7 ± 4.6−2.1 ± 8.233.7 ± 6.033.3 ± 7.9−0.4 ± 10.50.247
(2) Choice reaction time
 Accuracy (%)70.7 ± 17.775.0 ± 13.34.3 ± 22.265.4 ± 20.567.9 ± 20.62.5 ± 27.70.639
 Reaction time (msec)38.2 ± 9.138.4 ± 6.40.2 ± 10.437.6 ± 10.438.5 ± 9.20.9 ± 13.40.698
(3) Spatial working memory
 Accuracy (%)83.6 ± 12.084.6 ± 6.51.0 ± 13.881.4 ± 12.981.3 ± 13.2−0.2 ± 17.70.620
 Reaction time (msec)21.7 ± 5.520.9 ± 4.1−0.8 ± 6.721.2 ± 6.722.0 ± 7.90.8 ± 10.70.220
(4) Memory scanning task
 Accuracy (%)83.7 ± 14.784.6 ± 9.40.8 ± 17.482.3 ± 12.682.5 ± 12.90.1 ± 18.30.805
 Reaction time (msec)33.7 ± 6.532.0 ± 4.8−1.8 ± 7.933.7 ± 5.232.8 ± 5.5−0.8 ± 7.60.450

values were calculated by independent -test comparing between intervention group and control group.
: posttest values minus pretest values.