Table 3: Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in ASD.

Author Year Type and duration of study Sample size Type of intervention ComparatorsDose Outcome measureFindings Comments

Granpeesheh et al. [45]2010Randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, parallel group  
Duration: maximum 15 weeks
(gender not reported)  
Age: 2–14 years  
Drop-out
Patients controlled for medication and educational therapy
HBOT (1.3 atm and supplemental oxygen approximately 24–28% FiO2)  
Completers ()
Placebo Completers ()80 1-h sessions ABC, ADOS, CGI, Vineland, SRS, BRIEF, PSI, PPVT-III, VMINo significant difference High attrition rate

Rossignol et al. [46]2007Open label  
Duration: 4 weeks
(M 14; F 4)  
Age: 3–16 years  
HBOT (1.5 atm and supplemental oxygen (100% FiO2),
HBOT (1.3 atm and supplemental oxygen (24% FiO2),
Drop-out
None40 1-h sessions ATEC, ABC-community, SRSSignificant improvement in both groups in ATEC and SRSOpen label  
Small sample size

Rossignol et al. [47]2009Randomized, double blind, parallel group  
Duration: 4 weeks
(M 52; F 10)  
Age: 2–7 years
HBOT (1.3 atm and supplemental oxygen (approximately 24% FiO2), “active group,”
Drop-out
HBOT (1.03 atm and supplemental oxygen (approximately 21% FiO2), “control group,”
Drop-out
40 1-h sessions ATEC, CGI, ABCSignificant improvement in the active group in CGI receptive language, social interaction, and eye contact. Improvement in ATEC sensory/cognitive awareness No placebo

Sampanthavivat et al. [48]2012Randomized, double blind, parallel group  
Duration: unclear

Age: 3–9 years
HBOT (1.5 atm and supplemental oxygen 24% FiO2),
Drop-out
Sham air (1.15 atm),
Drop-out
20 1-h sessionsATEC, CGI-change, and CGI-severityNo differences between the two groupsNo placebo

ABC, Aberrant Behavior Checklist; ADOS, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule; ATEC, Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist; ASD, autism spectrum disorder; BRIEF, Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning; CGI, Clinical Global Impression; PPVT-III, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Third Edition; PSI, Parent Stress Index; SRS, Social Responsiveness Scale; VABS, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale; VMI-5, Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration—5th edition.