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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2015, Article ID 298635, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/298635
Research Article

Ginkgolide C Suppresses Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes via the AMPK Signaling Pathway

1Department of Nursing, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, 261 Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Taoyuan, Taiwan
2Department of Nutrition and Health Sciences, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, 261 Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Taoyuan, Taiwan
3Graduate Institute of Health Industry Technology, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Kwei-Shan, Taoyuan, Taiwan
4Research Center for Industry of Human Ecology, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Kwei-Shan, Taoyuan, Taiwan

Received 23 June 2015; Revised 5 August 2015; Accepted 13 August 2015

Academic Editor: Srinivas Nammi

Copyright © 2015 Chian-Jiun Liou et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Ginkgolide C, isolated from Ginkgo biloba leaves, is a flavone reported to have multiple biological functions, from decreased platelet aggregation to ameliorating Alzheimer disease. The study aim was to evaluate the antiadipogenic effect of ginkgolide C in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Ginkgolide C was used to treat differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. Cell supernatant was collected to assay glycerol release, and cells were lysed to measure protein and gene expression related to adipogenesis and lipolysis by western blot and real-time PCR, respectively. Ginkgolide C significantly suppressed lipid accumulation in differentiated adipocytes. It also decreased adipogenesis-related transcription factor expression, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein. Furthermore, ginkgolide C enhanced adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase production for lipolysis and increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), resulting in decreased activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase for fatty acid synthesis. In coculture with an AMPK inhibitor (compound C), ginkgolide C also improved activation of sirtuin 1 and phosphorylation of AMPK in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. The results suggest that ginkgolide C is an effective flavone for increasing lipolysis and inhibiting adipogenesis in adipocytes through the activated AMPK pathway.