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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 347861, 7 pages
Research Article

Anti-Inflammatory Property of Plantago major Leaf Extract Reduces the Inflammatory Reaction in Experimental Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury

1Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Yaacob Latif, Bandar Tun Razak, Cheras, 56000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
2Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Received 30 April 2015; Revised 16 July 2015; Accepted 21 July 2015

Academic Editor: Sonia Piacente

Copyright © 2015 Farida Hussan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Hepatic injury induces inflammatory process and cell necrosis. Plantago major is traditionally used for various diseases. This study aimed to determine the anti-inflammatory property of P. major leaf extracts on inflammatory reaction following acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups, namely, normal control (C), APAP, aqueous (APAP + AQ), methanol (APAP + MT), and ethanol (APAP + ET) extract treated groups. All APAP groups received oral APAP (2 g/kg) at day 0. Then, 1000 mg/kg dose of P. major extracts was given for six days. The levels of liver transaminases were measured at day 1 and day 7 after APAP induction. At day 7, the blood and liver tissue were collected to determine plasma cytokines and tissue 11β-HSD type 1 enzyme. The in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of methanol, ethanol, and aqueous extracts were 26.74 ± 1.6%, 21.69 ± 2.81%, and 12.23 ± 3.15%, respectively. The ALT and AST levels were significantly higher in the APAP groups at day 1 whereas the enzyme levels of all groups showed no significant difference at day 7. The extracts treatment significantly reduced the proinflammatory cytokine levels and significantly increased the 11β-HSD type 1 enzyme activity (). In conclusion, the P. major extracts attenuate the inflammatory reaction following APAP-induced liver injury.