Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2015 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Acupoint Catgut Embedding for Obesity: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Table 1

Characteristics of RCTs of ACE for obesity.

First author, yearInterventionOutcome (ACE versus Ct.)Side effects
No. in ACE/Ct.Acupoints of ACE Types of Ct.Frequency of ACE (total times)Frequency of Ct. (total times)With benefitsNo effectACECt.

Cao 2006 [32] 150/90LI11, RN12, ST25, RN6, SP9, SP6, AShiMA1 per 20 days (3)1 per 1-2 day(s) (45) IR, BW, BMI/NRNR

Chen 2007 [33]40/40ST34, RN12, ST25, RN9, ST40MA1 per 1 week (4)1 per 1-2 day(s) (19)//NRNR

Chen 2014 [34]40/40SI4, BL22, BL17MA1 per 1 week (2)5 per 1 week (10) IR, BW, FP/NRNR

Ding 2006 [35]23/22Not GivenMA1 per 10 days (3)1 per 2 days (15) IR/NRNR

Ding 2006 [36]65/64RN12, ST25, ST40, LI 11MA1 per 10 days (3)1 per 2 days (15) IR/NRNR

Jin 2009 [37]45/44RN12, RN10, RN6, RN5, RN4, SP15, ST25, ST26, ST24MA1 per 1 week (4)1 per 1 day (30) IR/NRNR

Li 2009 [38]53/53SP13, SP14, SP15, ST29, ST25, ST24, ST21, RN24MA1 per 15 days (3)1 per 2 days (23) IR/NRNR

Li 2007 [39]36/36Individualization treatmentMA1 per 2 week (9)1 per 2 days (63) WC, THC, HC, FP, BM/NRNR

Li 2006 [40]30/21ST21, ST25, RN6, ST40MA1 per 1 week (4)6 per 1 week (48) HDL/NRNR

Li 2014 [41]41/41GB26, ST25, SP15, RN12, RN6MA1 per 1 week (8)1 per 2 days (28) //NRNR

Li 2009 [42]72/68Individualization treatmentMA1 per 10 days (6)3 per 1 week (24) //NRNR

Liu 2008 [43]27/28RN13, RN12, ST36, ST25MA1 per 35 days (2)1 per 1-2 day(s) (38)//NRNR

Liu 2008 [44]40/40RN12, RN10, RN4, RN6, ST25, SP15, ST24, ST28MA1 per 8 days (3); 1 per 15 days (3)1 per 1-2 day(s) (20) IR/NRNR

Liu 2007 [45]32/32ST25, RN4, RN9, ST36, ST40, SP6MA1 per 2 weeks (2)1 per 2 day (14) //NRNR

Meng 2005 [46]48/48ST37, ST40, SP6, SP4, ST34, ST25, BL20, BL21, BL25MA1 per 1 weeks (4)1 per 1 day (30) IR/NRNR

Ruan 2009 [47]35/35BL25, ST25, BL21, RN12, BL27, RN4, ST37, ST40, SP9MA1 per 2 weeks (4)1 per 1-2 day(s) (25) IR, WHR/NRNR

Tian 2014 [48]22/22RN12, LR13, ST25, RN4, SP15, ST37, ST40MA1 per 15 days (4)1 per 1 day (52) IR/NRNR

Wang 2001 [49]60/30RN9, RN7, ST25, ST40MA1 per 1 month (3)1 per 1 day (63) /IRNRNR

Wang 2006 [50]30/30ST37, ST40, SP6, SP4, ST34, ST25, BL20, BL21, BL25MA1 per 1 weeks (4)1 per 1 day (30) IR/NRNR

Xia 2014 [51]36/36ST25, ST36, RN13, RN12MA1 per 15 days (6)1 per 3 days (30) /IRNRNR

Xiong 2006 [52]25/23AShi, RN12, ST25, GB26MA1 per 1 weeks (8)1 per 1 day (56) //NRNR

Xu 2014 [53]30/30BL18, BL20, BL23, ST40, SP6, ST36, RN12, RN10, ST25, ST29, RN4, EX-CA1, SP9MA1 per 2 weeks (6)1 per 2 days (42) OD, BMI, WHR, IR/NRNR

Yan 2007 [54]35/33ST25, ST40, ST36, SP6, BL21, BL20, BL25, ST28MA1 per 15 days (6–10)1 per 1 day (>90) BMI, IR/NRNR

Yang 2011 [55]30/30RN12, ST34, RN9, RN4, ST25, SP15, LI 11, SJ6, ST44, ST40, ST37, SP6, SP9MA1 per 15 days (4)6 per 1 week (30) IR/NRNR

Yao 2014 [56]25/25RN12, ST25, RN6, SP15, ST28, SP14, ST24, ST40, SP6MA1 per 10–14 days (6–8)5 per 1 week (60) BMI, WC, HC, OD, FP, IR/NRNR

Yin 2007 [57]27/26RN12, RN9, RN6, RN4, ST25, SP15, ST36, SP9MA1 per 1 week (4)1 per 1 day (30) //NRNR

Zhang 2014 [58]30/30ST25, RN12, LI 11, SP9, ST40, LR3, ST29, RN10, RN3, SJ6MA1 per 1 week (8)not clearWC, BW, BMI, IRNRNR

Zhang 2007 [59]78/47LI 11, RN12, ST25, RN6MA1 per 15 days (3)1 per 1 day (30) IR/NRNR

Zhang 2006 [60]30/30RN12, ST25, RN6, ST37MA1 per 15 days (6)1 per 2 days (36)//NRNR

Zhang 2008 [61]30/30RN12, ST25, RN6, ST37MA1 per 10 days (3)1 per 2 days (45) appetite/NRNR

Nie 2007 [62]56/70RN12, RN4, ST25, AShidrug (sibutramine)1 per 20 days (6)10 mg per 1 time, 1 time per 1 day, total 56 days//NRheadache, dry mouth, anorexia, insomnia, constipation, rapid heartbeat, mild high blood pressure

Cong 2007 [63]32/31RN12, RN9, ST25, BL25, ST34, SP4drug (ZhiBiTuo)1 per 1 week (8)0.7 g per 1 time, 3 times per 1 day, total 8 weeksBW, BMI, WHR/subcutaneous indurations (), red and swollen () gastrointestinal discomfort ()

Zhang 2010 [64]35/34RN12, ST25, SP15, RN6, RN4, RN3, LA14, RN9, ST40, SP6, GB30, BL37, LI 11drug (sibutramine)1 per 15 days (6)10 mg per 1 time, 1 time per 1 day, total 56 days///

Li 2014 [65]30/30GB26, GB27, GB28, RN4, KI13, ST28, BL52drug (metformin)1 per 1 week (4)not clearIR, leptin, insulin/NRNR

Zhang 2008 [66] 40/40RN10, RN5, ST25, ST23, ST27 EA3 per 1 week (24)3 per 1 week (24) WHR, BW, TC, TG/NRNR

Zhu 2014 [67]25/25RN13, RN12, RN10, RN7, RN9, RN4, RN6, ST25, ST24, ST26, SP15, SP14, GB26, GB27, LI14, SJ13, LI4, LI 11, GB31, GB32, ST34, ST36, ST37, ST40, SP6, SP9 EA1 per 2 weeks (4)3 per 1 week (24) //NRNR

Huang 2011 [68]30/30RN12, ST25, SP15, RN9, RN6, RN4, ST36, AshiEA1 per 1 week (4)3 per 1 week (24) medical cost BW, IR, BMI, WC, HC, WHRNRNR

Ruan 2010 [69]30/30ST21, ST25, ST28, Ashi, RN12, RN9, ST27, GB26, AshiEA1 per 1 week (8)3 per 1 week (24) IR, BW, BMI, WC, HC, WHR/NRNR

Guo 2009 [70]68/65RN12, RN10, RN6, RN4, ST40, SP15, ST24, ST36Sham1 per 1 week (8)1 pre 1 week (8)IR/NRNR

Jia 2014 [71]20/20ST24, ST28, GB26, SP14, ST21, ST25, ST40Sham1 per 15 days (6)1 per 15 days (6) IR, BW, BMI, HC, CC, WC, HC, THC, SC/NRNR

Hou 2014 [72]40/40RN12, ST25, RN4, RN6, ST36, ST40Cupping 1 per 15–20 days (4)2-3 per 1 week (8–12) IR, WC/NRNR

Pan 2009 [73]40/40ST25, RN12, RN4, BL25, BL20, ST24, SP15, RN9, RN7, BL21, BL26, ST26, GB26, RN11, RN6, BL23, BL28EA1 per 1 day (60) 3 per 1 week (20)WHR, BMI, /NRNR

Tang 2009 [74]33/32RN12, ST25, RN6, RN4, ST34, ST36, SP4, BL15, BL20EA1 per 15 days (3)1 per 1-2 day(s) (15)IR, BW, BMI, WC, WHR, HAMD, HAMA, PSQI/NRNR

ACE: acupoint catgut embedding, MA: manual acupuncture, EA: electroacupuncture, Ct.: control, IR: improvement rate, BW: body weight, BMI: body mass index, CC: chest circumference, FP: fat percentage, THC: thigh circumference, BM: basic metabolism, HC: hip circumference, WHR: waist hip rate, BM: basal metabolism, OD: obesity degree, TC: total cholesterol, TG: triacylglycerol, SC: shank circumference, HDL: high-density lipoprotein, HAMD: Hamilton depression scale, HAMA: Hamilton anxiety scale, and PSQI: Pittsburgh sleep quality index.