Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2015 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

Determination of Oleanolic and Ursolic Acids in Hedyotis diffusa Using Hyphenated Ultrasound-Assisted Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction and Chromatography

Table 2

Comparison of extraction yields and extraction conditions obtained by the HRE, SC–CO2 and HSC–CO2 methods.

Extraction parametersExtraction mode

Herbal sampleHD3HD3 HD3
Mean particle size (mm)0.3550.3550.355
Plant weight (g)5510
Stirring rate (rpm)300
Static extraction time (min)2515
Ultrasonic frequency (kHz)40
Duty cycle (%)79
Dynamic time (min)140110
Extraction time (min)60 × 4 (4 cycles)165125
Extraction temperature (°C)75 (Boiling point)5656
Extraction pressure (MPa) 28.228.2
Liquid/solid ratio (mL/g)1664.450.6
CO2 flow rate (mL/min) 2.32.3
Extraction cycles4
Cosolvent (v/v%) 82% ethanol82% ethanol
Percentage of cosolvent
(82% ethanol) in SC–CO2
12.5% 12.5%
 Yield (mg/g)a0.762 ± 0.0300.824 ± 0.0320.917 ± 0.033
 Ethanol (v/v%)b70%
 RSD (%)c3.943.883.696
 Yield (mg/g)a2.964 ± 0.0943.175 ± 0.1143.540 ± 0.135
 Ethanol (v/v%)b90%
 RSD (%)c3.173.593.825

Values are written as the mean ± SD of six replications and are calculated based on plant dry weight basis.
bEthanol concentration in water (v/v%).
cRSD (%) = (SD/mean) × 100.

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