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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2015, Article ID 504061, 11 pages
Research Article

Salutary Effects of Cepharanthine against Skeletal Muscle and Kidney Injuries following Limb Ischemia/Reperfusion

1Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11042, Taiwan
2Department of Anesthesiology, Taipei Tzu Chi Hospital, New Taipei City 23142, Taiwan
3School of Medicine, Tzu Chi University, Hualien 97004, Taiwan
4Department of Pathology, Taipei Tzu Chi Hospital, New Taipei City 23142, Taiwan

Received 18 June 2015; Revised 21 September 2015; Accepted 7 October 2015

Academic Editor: Kuzhuvelil B. Harikumar

Copyright © 2015 Ming-Chang Kao et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Limb ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) causes oxidation and inflammation and subsequently induces muscle and kidney injuries. Cepharanthine, a natural plant alkaloid, possesses anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. We elucidated the salutary effects of cepharanthine against muscle and kidney injuries following limb I/R. Adult male rats were randomized to receive I/R or I/R plus cepharanthine. I/R was achieved by applying tourniquet high around each thigh for 3 hours followed by reperfusion for 24 hours. Cepharanthine (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) was injected immediately before reperfusion. After euthanization, degrees of tissue injury, inflammation, and oxidation were examined. Our data revealed that the I/R group had significant increases in injury biomarker concentrations of muscle (creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase) and kidney (creatinine, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, and kidney injury molecule-1). Histological assays revealed moderate muscle and kidney injury characteristics in the I/R group. The I/R group also had significant increases in concentrations of inflammatory molecules (interleukin-6, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, and prostaglandin E2) and reactive nitrogen species (nitric oxide) as well as lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde). Of note, these effects of limb I/R could be mitigated by cepharanthine. These data confirmed that cepharanthine attenuated muscle and kidney injuries induced by limb I/R. The mechanisms may involve its anti-inflammatory and antioxidative capacities.