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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2015, Article ID 506564, 6 pages
Research Article

Phosphodiesterase-1 Inhibitory Activity of Two Flavonoids Isolated from Pistacia integerrima J. L. Stewart Galls

1Institute of Chemical Sciences, University of Peshawar, Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 25120, Pakistan
2H. E. J. Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
3Department of Pharmacy, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan 23200, Pakistan
4Department of Pharmacy, University of Naples Federico II, 80131 Naples, Italy
5Department of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Fisciano, 84084 Salerno, Italy

Received 10 November 2014; Revised 12 March 2015; Accepted 18 March 2015

Academic Editor: Yu-Ping Tang

Copyright © 2015 Abdur Rauf et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Pistacia integerrima is one of twenty species among the genus Pistacia. Long horn-shaped galls that develop on this plant are harvested and used in Ayurveda and Indian traditional medicine to make “karkatshringi”, a herbal medicine used for the treatment of asthma and different disorders of respiratory tract. However, until now, the molecular mechanisms of action of “karkatshringi” and its chemical characterization are partially known. This study deals with the isolation and characterization of the active constituents from the methanolic extract of P. integerrima galls and it was also oriented to evaluate in vitro and in silico their potential enzymatic inhibitory activity against phosphodiesterase-1 (PDE1), a well-known enzyme involved in airway smooth muscle activity and airway inflammation. Our results showed that the methanolic extract of P. integerrima galls and some of its active constituents [naringenin (1) and 3,5,7,4′-tetrahydroxy-flavanone (2)] are able in vitro to inhibit PDE1 activity (59.20 ± 4.95%, 75.90 ± 5.90%, and 65.25 ± 5.25%, resp.) and demonstrate in silico an interesting interaction with this enzymatic site. Taken together, our results add new knowledge of chemical constituents responsible for the biological activity of P. integerrima and contextually legitimate the use of this plant in folk medicine.