Toxic Markers of Matrine Determined Using 1H-NMR-Based Metabolomics in Cultured Cells In Vitro and Rats In Vivo
Multivariate statistical analysis based on 1H NMR spectra of rat urine. PCA scores plots obtained from rat urine in posttreatment day 1 (a) and day 3 (b). Representative OPLS-DA scores plot (c) and corresponding S-plot (d) derived from control group versus high dose group in posttreatment day 1. (●) control group, (▲) low dose group, (■) middle dose group, and (★) high dose group. 2-OG: 2-oxoglutarate, Cit: citrate, Hipp; hippurate, Succ: succinate, Tau: taurine, and TMAO: trimethylamine N-oxide.