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Figure 2: Multivariate statistical analysis based on 1H NMR spectra of rat urine. PCA scores plots obtained from rat urine in posttreatment day 1 (a) and day 3 (b). Representative OPLS-DA scores plot (c) and corresponding S-plot (d) derived from control group versus high dose group in posttreatment day 1. (●) control group, (▲) low dose group, (■) middle dose group, and (★) high dose group. 2-OG: 2-oxoglutarate, Cit: citrate, Hipp; hippurate, Succ: succinate, Tau: taurine, and TMAO: trimethylamine N-oxide.